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Glenn G
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Diffusion of gases seems to follow normal distribution. I imagine deviations from the mean would depend on temperature, mean free path and speed of gas molecules. Any other?
Cheers,
Glenn
Cheers,
Glenn
What do you mean by this? Diffusion in single component gas due to density gradients? 2 component mixture? Or are you talking about the maxwell-boltzmann distribution?Glenn G said:Diffusion of gases seems to follow normal distribution."
Glenn
Well if the body of gas is in equilibrium, then the gas will be homogeneously distributed i.e density even everywhere. So that's where it is trying to get to and doesn't depend on the initial configuration of the gas as long as you wait long enough for equilibrium to happen at a given temperature for fixed volume say. The temperature and pressure determine the mean energy and the temperature alone determines the distribution about this mean value due to statistical fluctuation. For a non interacting gas this corresponds to kinetic energy and thus determines the average speed and the distribution of speeds about this average, which is a gaussian distribution.Glenn G said:Sorry I meant that if you modeled the displacement over time of a body of gas and plot where all they have got to in terms of displacement from their original position that it follow the normal distribution (the mean displacement should be zero I'd imagine because they are moving in random directions) is any of this correct?
Ah yes OK, I probably should have been able to get what was meant but it was theCutter Ketch said:I believe he means that in a gas at equilibrium the probability for the net displacement of any single molecule over a fixed time is normally distributed.
that threw me off.Glenn G said:a body of gas and plot where all they have got to
I was making reference to the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution i.e that the speed of a particle is normally distributed.. which then leads to a normal distribution of displacement for fixed time.muscaria said:For a non interacting gas this corresponds to kinetic energy and thus determines the average speed and the distribution of speeds about this average, which is a gaussian distribution.
Here the normal distribution arises from the fact that the energy of a non-interacting gas is purely kinetic and therefore quadratic in the velocities. So the probability of measuring a particle with energy ##\epsilon=mv^2/2## is proportional toCutter Ketch said:(I can't say that it is always true, but I suppose the central limit theorem makes it hard for it not to be true)
As with all statistical mechanics observables, the spread from the average occurs due to energy fluctuating between the system and heat bath during thermal equilibrium and it is the temperature ##\textit{alone}## which determines this fluctuation (pressure doesn't play any role for instance). Increasing the energy of a system through work (pressure, E-M fields etc..) shifts energy levels upwards, whereas increasing energy by adding heat and raising the temperature doesn't change the energy levels but shifts the occupation towards higher energy levels: work changes the energy levels and leaves distribution unchanged, heat changes the distribution and leaves the energy levels unchanged.Glenn G said:I imagine deviations from the mean would depend on temperature, mean free path and speed of gas molecules. Any other?
Gas distribution refers to the process of how gases are dispersed or spread out in a particular area or environment. This can be influenced by factors such as temperature, pressure, and molecular properties of the gas.
Temperature plays a critical role in gas distribution as it affects the kinetic energy of gas molecules. As temperature increases, gas molecules gain more energy and move faster, leading to a wider distribution. Conversely, lower temperatures result in slower-moving molecules and a more concentrated distribution.
The mean free path (MFP) is the average distance a gas molecule can travel before colliding with another molecule. It is influenced by factors such as gas density, temperature, and pressure. In general, as MFP increases, gas molecules have a higher chance of colliding with each other, resulting in a more uniform distribution.
Gas distribution can be measured using various techniques such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and spectroscopy. These methods allow scientists to analyze the concentration and distribution of different gas molecules in a sample.
Yes, gas distribution can be controlled through various methods such as temperature and pressure regulation, gas diffusion, and gas barriers. These techniques are commonly used in industries such as gas production and distribution, semiconductor manufacturing, and air conditioning systems.