Homeopaths assert that dilution of a medicinal substance in a water -alcohol mixture, followed by forceful shaking (called "succussion") would create a memory of that substance in the solution. Critics argue that shaking of liquid water is unable to create macroscopic order, as this would contradict the second law of thermodynamics. Due to gaps in my physics knowledge, I do not really understand the following statement in this regard : "To create order, at a macroscopic level in liquid water with all its thermal motion, substantial amounts of energy would be required. This energy cannot be derived from the chaotic thermal motion itself. This would be contrary to the second law of thermodynamics." The second law of thermodynamics implies, I think, that the introduction of order in a solution would cause a decrease of its entropy and a concomitant increase of the entropy in the environment. Why would forceful shaking be unable to do this ? In particular, why can the required energy not be derived from the "chaotic thermal motion" of the water molecules ? Thanks for any clarification.