thermodynamics Definition and Topics - 497 Discussions

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, radiation, and physical properties of matter. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics which convey a quantitative description using measurable macroscopic physical quantities, but may be explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, biochemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering, but also in other complex fields such as meteorology.
Historically, thermodynamics developed out of a desire to increase the efficiency of early steam engines, particularly through the work of French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1824) who believed that engine efficiency was the key that could help France win the Napoleonic Wars. Scots-Irish physicist Lord Kelvin was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics in 1854 which stated, "Thermo-dynamics is the subject of the relation of heat to forces acting between contiguous parts of bodies, and the relation of heat to electrical agency."
The initial application of thermodynamics to mechanical heat engines was quickly extended to the study of chemical compounds and chemical reactions. Chemical thermodynamics studies the nature of the role of entropy in the process of chemical reactions and has provided the bulk of expansion and knowledge of the field. Other formulations of thermodynamics emerged. Statistical thermodynamics, or statistical mechanics, concerns itself with statistical predictions of the collective motion of particles from their microscopic behavior. In 1909, Constantin Carathéodory presented a purely mathematical approach in an axiomatic formulation, a description often referred to as geometrical thermodynamics.

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  1. burian

    I Entropy after removing partition separating gas into two compartments

    Summary:: Proving that entropy change in mixing of gas is positive definite > >An ideal gas is seperated by a piston in such a way that the entropy of one prat is## S_1## and that of the other part is ##S_2##. Given that ##S_1>S_2##, if the piston is removed then the total entropy of the...
  2. Dario56

    Vapor - Liquid Equilibrium Equation (VLE)

    Most fundamental equation for VLE is $$ \mu_i^L = \mu_i^V $$ It states that for every component chemical potential must be equal in both liquid and vapor phase at equilibrium. However, in my thermo textbook, this equation is derived for isolated systems while usually when dealing with VLE...
  3. L

    Number of moles necessary to get piston back to initial position

    a) ##T_A=\frac{p_AV_A}{nR}=300.7K, P_A V_A=kL^2=nRT_A##, ##P_B S=k\frac{L}{2}\Rightarrow P_B V_B=k(\frac{L}{2})^2 \Rightarrow P_B=\frac{kL^2}{2V_A}=\frac{P_AV_A}{2V_A}=\frac{P_A}{2}##, ##W_{spring\to gas}=\int_{L}^{L/2}kxdx=-\frac{3}{8}kL^2=-\frac{3}{8}nRT_A####\Rightarrow Q=L+\Delta...
  4. L

    Finding the increase in entropy of the universe in gas expansion

    a) ##P_f=\frac{nRT_f}{V_f}=\frac{nR\frac{T_i}{2}}{2V_0}=\frac{1}{4}\frac{nRT_i}{V_0}=\frac{1}{4}P_i## b) ##Q=\Delta U=nC_V \Delta T=n\frac{5}{2}R(-\frac{T_i}{2})=-\frac{5}{4}nRT_i=-\frac{5}{4}P_i V_0## (##L=0## since the gas expands in a vacuum; Now, (a) and (b) are both correct but not (c)...
  5. warhammer

    Entropy Change & Heat Transferred to a Gas

    By using the given relationship that S=a/T --(1) along with the equation ∫ (delta Q rev)/T=∫dS -- (2) I found out that my answer for the value of Q is mc*ln (T2/T1)*a upon equating (1) & (2). But the solution is instead given as Q=a*ln*(T1/T2). I would be grateful if someone would point out...
  6. warhammer

    To find total work done from multiple reversible processes

    The question is given in 3 parts. For first part, process is isochoric so Work done=0. We know here that at end of the process (a), T2=T1 while V remains constant (we can take it as V1) so P2=2P1. For second part, process is isothermal so T is constant. At end of process we reach P1 again from...
  7. Bolhuso

    I Galaxy redshift and thermodynamics

    I just finished rereading the great "A Brief History of Time". To me, what stands out the most in this book, is its ability to keep raising questions while you read it. This thought came up. It's been stuck in my mind for days, so I will humbly post it here to get some feedback. Please forgive...
  8. R

    Courses What do I do to catch up on Physics 1?

    I am a nanobiology student about to start her 2nd year. This year I only had 2 physics courses and I did pretty bad in both. As I start my second year I would like to be very prepared in physics since we will have way more of this subject. Are there some books or tips you have to catch up on...
  9. warhammer

    Question on First Law of Thermodynamics (Paramagnet)

    For the first part, I have expressed it in the following differential form- dU= delta (Q) + BdM Now for the second part I am having major confusion. I know that B corresponds to P and M corresponds to V as generalised force and generalised displacement respectively for a Paramagnetic substance...
  10. T

    Calculating Transient Heat Transfer in Pipes with Thick Walls

    Hi Everyone, I am looking to find how much heat can be stored in a concrete pipe of roughly 0.3-0.4m diameter, and an internal diameter of 0.05m. Air will travel through the internal diameter at 500°C and 17.5bar which will provide the heat for the pipes. This system will then be reversed so...
  11. Istiakshovon

    Calculate the volume change with gas temperature for this piston in a cylinder

    Solution attempt : Option : I am sure that my work is wrong. But, I must add solution attempt in PF that's why I just added that. How can I solve the problem?
  12. Ebi Rogha

    B Is time a consequence of 2nd law of thermodynamics?

    I have heard from a knowledgable physics proffessor, time exists independently and it is not a consequence of arrow of time. Could some body explain this?
  13. Dario56

    Why Does Electrical Work Cause Changes in the Internal Energy of a System?

    If we look at system at constant temperature and volume which is galvanic cell, first law of thermodynamics states: $$ dU = dQ + dW' $$ Where W' is electrical work done by galvanic cell and Q is heat exchanged with surroundings. As far as I know electrical work is work done by electric field...
  14. bardia sepehrnia

    Engineering Average heat transfer coefficient (forced convection)

    So firstly, I don't understand if the mass flow rate is for steam or for water. If it is for water, I know I can find the heat transfer rate using equation:Q=mcdeltaT. But then I don't know how to find h (the average heat transfer coefficient) because I don't know the surface area (As). I can...
  15. Dario56

    Entropy Changes in Electrolytic/Galvanic Cell?

    One of the most fundamental equations in chemical thermodynamics states: $$ \Delta_rH_m^⦵ = \Delta_rG_m^⦵ + T \Delta_rS_m^⦵ $$ If we look at this equation in context of net chemical reaction in electrolytic or galvanic cell, it is usually interpreted as follows: Enthalpy of reaction denotes...
  16. mcas

    Show that a partial molar property is an intensive property

    I started by taking a derivative: $$E = \sum_{i=1}^{\alpha} (E_i^{(p)} n_i) \ \ \ | \cdot \frac{\partial}{\partial n_i}$$ $$\frac{\partial E}{\partial n_i}=\sum_{i=1}^{\alpha} [\frac{\partial E_i^{(p)}}{\partial n_i}n_i + E_i^{(p)} \frac{\partial n_i}{\partial n_i}]$$ $$\frac{\partial...
  17. P

    Thermodynamics problem (ideal gas law, kinetic theory, processes, etc.)

    It is a long problem, but it is simple to understand. I am having trouble with part A. My attempt: Pressure outside > pressure inside container. pV = constant (isothermal). At equilibrium, all gases are at atmospheric pressure. Because it is quasi-static, the pressures of both compartments are...
  18. J

    Resources for the physics of clouds

    Does anyone know of any good papers/lectures/textbooks/etc that discuss the physical and mathematical principles that explain the structure and motion of clouds? Thanks.
  19. bardia sepehrnia

    I How can a process be isentropic but not reversible or adiobatic?

    In the book for our thermodynamics, it states that a process that is internally reversible and adiabatic, has to be isentropic, but an isentropic process doesn't have to be reversible and adiabatic. I don't really understand this. I always thought isentropic and reversible mean the same thing...
  20. bardia sepehrnia

    Engineering Thermodynamics, Calculating the required mass flow

    I have solved this question and it seemed pretty easy, but I got an extremely large number for the mass flow, I had to post the question here to make sure I did it correctly. Any help will be appreciated.
  21. P

    When do formulas for adiabatic processes apply?

    In this problem, the method used to solve the question is to equate pdV with change in internal energy. This implies an adiabatic process as Q = 0? (not sure about this claim) However, why is it not correct to simply apply the PV^ϒ = constant formula? Thank you.
  22. P

    Rate of heat flux from from hot gas in a pipe to water outside

    I have solved the first 2 parts. For the 3rd part, I have obtained the equation: T(x) - T0 = (T1 - T0)e^(-Φx/fc), where f = fm in the question. How do I obtain that expression for H? Thank you!
  23. ayans2495

    Final temperature of water

  24. ayans2495

    Calculating initial temperature of iron block submerged into water

  25. K

    Thermodynamics: Ideal gas model

    Do particles have air in between them in the ideal gas model? I think the answer is 'no, but I am not quite sure about the explanation. Is it because in an ideal gas model, the volume of the particles is negligible? Thank you.
  26. R

    I Irreversible Isochoric Process in a Cycle

    Consider a reversible ideal gas cycle consisting of: 1. An isochoric heat addition, 2. An isothermal expansion to the initial pressure, and 3. An isobaric compression to the initial volume. What, if any, is the difference in net work done by the gas in the cycle if the isochoric heat addition...
  27. P

    Gas effusing through hole, working out time dependence

    Consider instead a thermally insulated container of volume V with a small hole of area A, containing a gas with molecular mass m. At time t = 0, the density is ##n_0## and temperature is ##T_0##. As gas effuses out through a small hole, both density and temperature inside the container will...
  28. A

    Thermodynamics of a Fire Resistant Safe

    Hi, I have been researching how to protect my card collection from the unlikely event of a house fire, however there is not enough data for me to estimate whether my set up is adequate or not. If anyone could approximate anything here without knowing all the exact variables (r-values) that...
  29. J

    Thermodynamics problem relating to Chemical Potentials

    For part (a), I used this formula where where the i's represent the substance being used and mu_i^0 represents some reference potential. However, to my knowledge this simply calculates the change in chemical potential from one state to another which is not of much help in finding the relative...
  30. E

    Stability and concavity of the entropy function

    I am struggling to understand Callen's explanation for stability, I understand that the concavity of S(U) must be negative because otherwise we can show that this means that the temperature increases as the internal energy decreases (dT/dU<0) but I cannot understand equation (8.1) which...