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## Homework Statement

The problem:

Justify the following equalities:

[tex]\cot x = i\coth (ix) = i \sum^\infty_{n=-\infty} \frac{ix}{(ix)^2+(n\pi)^2}=\sum^\infty_{n=-\infty}\frac{x}{x^2+(n\pi)^2}[/tex]

I am trying to figure out how to start this. When I insert the Euler identity of [itex]

\coth[/itex] (using the formula for complex Fourier series) I end up with: [tex]c_n = \frac{1}{2\pi}\int^{\pi}_{-\pi}\frac{e^{x} + e^{-x}}{e^{x} - e^{-x}}e^{inx} \ dx = \frac{1}{2\pi} \int^{\pi}_{-\pi}\frac{e^{(1+in)x} + e^{-(1+in)x}}{e^{x} - e^{-x}} \ dx[/tex]

which is one ugly integral. So my question is a) did I make a mistake in the starting point and b) can this integral be simplified in some way that's better? Or is there some stupidly silly pattern I should be recognizing here? (I considered treating the integral as [itex]\frac{1}{2\pi} \int^{\pi}_{-\pi} \frac{u}{du}[/itex] or something like it).

I suspect I am missing something obvious.

Thanks for any help. This one I think involves doing out a complex Fourier series for cosh or sinh, which might be simpler. But I am not sure.