# What is Cosine: Definition and 342 Discussions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are real functions which relate an angle of a right-angled triangle to ratios of two side lengths. They are widely used in all sciences that are related to geometry, such as navigation, solid mechanics, celestial mechanics, geodesy, and many others. They are among the simplest periodic functions, and as such are also widely used for studying periodic phenomena through Fourier analysis.
The trigonometric functions most widely used in modern mathematics are the sine, the cosine, and the tangent. Their reciprocals are respectively the cosecant, the secant, and the cotangent, which are less used. Each of these six trigonometric functions has a corresponding inverse function (called inverse trigonometric function), and an equivalent in the hyperbolic functions as well.The oldest definitions of trigonometric functions, related to right-angle triangles, define them only for acute angles. To extend these definitions to functions whose domain is the whole projectively extended real line, geometrical definitions using the standard unit circle (i.e., a circle with radius 1 unit) are often used. Modern definitions express trigonometric functions as infinite series or as solutions of differential equations. This allows extending the domain of sine and cosine functions to the whole complex plane, and the domain of the other trigonometric functions to the complex plane from which some isolated points are removed.

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1. ### Laplace transform of cosine squared function

For part (b), I have tried finding the Laplace transform of via the convolution property of Laplace transform. My working is, ##L[\cos^2 (2t)] = L[\cos 2t] * L[\cos 2t]## ##L[\cos^2 (2t)] = \frac{s}{s^2 + 4} * \frac{s}{s^2 + 4}## ##\int_0^t \frac{s^2}{(s^2 + 4)^2} dt = \frac{ts^2}{(s^2 +...

25. ### Quaternions and Direction Cosine Matrix changing in time

I've already posted this question on the mathematics website of stack exchange, but I've received more help here in the past so will share it here as well. I am developing a tool for missile trajectory (currently without guidance). One issue is that the aerodynamic equations on the missile are...
26. ### I How can I go from sine to cosine using exponential numbers?

##cos(\omega)## is $$\frac{e^{j \omega } + e^{-j \omega }}{2}$$ ##sin(\omega)## is $$\frac{e^{j \omega } - e^{-j \omega }}{2 j}$$ I also know that ##cos(\omega - \pi / 2) = sin(\omega)##. I've been trying to show this using exponentials, but I can't seem to manipulate one form into the...
27. ### B Shifting of a Cosine Curve with negative phase angle values

Continuing on from the summary, the chapter has given a graphed example. We are shown a regular cosine wave with phase angle 0 and another with phase angle (-Pi/4) in order to illustrate that the second curve is shifted rightward to the regular cosine curve because of the negative value. Now, my...