Hi, I wondered what is the maximal ionization of a given element when it is free (not bound into a molecule). I'd assume it is possible to strip off all electrons of a given element (given sufficient ionizing radiation) so the maximal positive charge should be +Z (Z being the atomic number). While the cation ionization seems straightforward I'm more concerned about the anion ionization. How many additional electrons can be captured by an (isolated) element ? None ? Up to the next noble gas ? Or only filling up subshells which already have a single electron in it ? Can someone shed light on how that is and why ? Thanks and cheers.