Ionization Definition and 35 Discussions

Ionization or ionisation is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons, often in conjunction with other chemical changes. The resulting electrically charged atom or molecule is called an ion. Ionization can result from the loss of an electron after collisions with subatomic particles, collisions with other atoms, molecules and ions, or through the interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Heterolytic bond cleavage and heterolytic substitution reactions can result in the formation of ion pairs. Ionization can occur through radioactive decay by the internal conversion process, in which an excited nucleus transfers its energy to one of the inner-shell electrons causing it to be ejected.

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  1. S

    Trying to Understand Ionization

    It will try to produce a neutral atom but it depends on the amount of energy that electron is shot at the atom, if it is great enough energy for ionization it will produce cation, If it is not enough for ionization it will make a neutral atom or anion, I think.
  2. D

    % Ionisation or % 'Ionization' for non-Australians

    Hi there, I'm sure this is glaringly obvious for chem-buffs but just been coming across some Henderson-Hasselbach type questions in Basic scenarios where we're looking at basic solutions where calculating involves a [BH]/ as opposed to the regular [AH]/[A-]. I've come across wording in what...
  3. T

    Energy released upon ionization of different gases

    Hi, I am interested in plasma physics. I understand that once a gas (say Argon) is ionized, light (electromagnetic radiation) is emitted. This is clearly observable from the coloured glow of the gas when it is in a plasma state. Where does the energy for these electromagnetic rays come from? Is...
  4. patric44

    I Is this just a normal fluorescence of glass molecules?

    hi guys i recently had built a HV power supply out of an old Flyback transformer i had laying around , i think it produces about 10KV ~ 15KV not very sure but it could arc at about ( 6mm in air ) , and as you can see i tried to connect it to a 15W smal light bulb ( the positive terminal...
  5. astroscout

    High Voltage Discharges or Explosions from Powerlines -- why these colors?

    Hi.....Here is a GIF of some electrical explosions that I recorded with my full spectrum camera. These power lines supply power to a neighboring county so it didn't affect my area. In the upper atmosphere we see something similar in Transient Luminous Events (TLEs). In the case of the blue in...
  6. C

    A Dieletric breakdown of air

    Although I have seen values such as 3 kV/mm for the dielectric breakdown of air, I was curious if there was an analytical or semi-analytical model of the ionization of say N2 under a uniform electric field. I am aware of Peek's law. Am I correct in assuming it is empirical? How might one connect...
  7. reese houseknecht

    I Ionizing air specifics

    So i have been looking at a 1microsecond pulsed 250milliwatt 980nm laser. I watched a video where a guy outputed 50millijoules at 5 nanoseconds and achieved air breakdown. Im wondering since maybe mine is higher energy it will do the same or i need faster pulses?
  8. reese houseknecht

    Calculating how many Joules are required to make a photon

    A double covalent bond of nitrogen (N2) is 15.58eV Now lets go into a example. if i have a laser that is 477nm and i do 1240/477nm then i get 2.6eV per photon. Now if i do (15.58eV / 2.6eV) it equals ~6 photons. Now to figure out how many Joules are required for 1 photon I do (6.626*10^-34S *...
  9. F

    Ionized gas in a cable

    Hi! Does it exist cables using ionized gas / plasma as the conductor available to buy? Thanks in advance!
  10. G

    B Cu's 29th ionization energy

    So I was playing with periodic table and discovered Cu's 29th ionization energy(cu with no electron) is 1116105 KJ/mole . Then i searched on google to convert to MeV which is 6.9661798e+21 , then I thought that one uranium 235 produce 200mev so to make that you would need around 3.5e+19...
  11. esha

    Why is degree of ionization inversely proportional to...

    Degree of ionization is the number of particles which dissociate by the total number of particles. if that's the case then higher number of particles should mean higher number of particles which get dissociated. this should also mean higher the concentration the degree of ionization will also...
  12. EL_bob

    Magnetic assisted rocket engine

    Hello everybody! I have been thinking about something for a while now. I would like to make a magnetic nozzle for a rocket engine. Basically, I would like to ionize the hot and high pressure gaz in the combustion chamber and then use a strong magnetic field to adjust the nozzle throat...
  13. rodv92

    Decreasing gas breakdown distance in a spark gap with UV

    Hello ! I am currently investigating a technique that would allow several spark gaps to breakdown synchronously in an enclosed but not hermetical cavity, flushed with N2 at 1atm and ~25°C My idea was to use "indirect" photoionization (basically a synthetic fused quartz UV flash discharge inside...
  14. L

    How to write equations for salt dissolving in water/ionizing

    Homework Statement Write separate equations for each potassium salt (KH2PO4) dissolving in water and for the ionization reaction of the weak acid anion that each of these salts contains. Homework Equations None The Attempt at a Solution I just needed to clarify when it dissolves in water do...
  15. M

    Beta radiation and Alpha radiation

    This might be a very stupid question :(, but I am confused. So I did an experiment. we had radioactive material which was emitting beta particles, and we were using geiger counter to measure pulses (ionized beta particles). We were supposed to measure the time it takes for the geiger counter to...
  16. N

    Problem about ionisation

    Homework Statement When a gas is enclosed in an impermeable box and heated to a high temperature T, some of the neutral atoms lose an electron and become ions. If the number density of neutral atoms, ions and electrons is Na , N i and N e , respectively, these can be related to the average...
  17. Iron_Man_123

    Which of the following is not an example of ionizing radiati

    Homework Statement Homework Equations Between Radio Waves and Protons is where my confusion lies; Online I read that Radio waves are non ionizing but if that's the answer then how are protons ionizing? I mean it's no even included in the types of ionizing radiation here...
  18. P

    I Selection rules for multiphoton vs single-photon ionization

    Question: For ionization of a homonuclear diatomic, how do the selection rules differ for a nonresonant 2-photon ionization process and a 1-photon ionization process?
  19. U

    A Calculating the ionization rate in the Interstellar medium?

    I hope putting this in the high energy section is the right section (if not, please let me know which would be more appropriate!) I felt this was appropriate since the work I am doing is high energy astrophysics. So I'm doing some research this summer, and my tasks were to take some data...
  20. U

    A Ionization Rate for Cosmic Rays, given the CR spectrum

    Hi all, so I am working on a presentation. What I have done so far was to calculate the cosmic ray spectrum (so given some data from Voyager 1 and PAMELA, I found the intensity as a function of the energy, in units of m^-2 (sr s MeV)^-1. Given this function, which is essentially J =...
  21. astrotizio

    A Stellar photosphere temperatures

    Hi all, Star surface temperature determines the occurrence of photosphere, where radiation can escape from star interior due to diminishing gas ionization and radiation absorption. If it was true the star photospheres should have the same temperature and Herzsprung-Russell diagram should be...
  22. CMATT

    Choose the element in each of the sets you would expect to have the highest IE2

    Homework Statement Choose the element in each of the sets you would expect to have the highest IE2. a. K b. Be c. Mg d. Ca e. Al Homework Equations The correct answer is K The Attempt at a Solution I do not understand why it is K ...I kind of guessed by using my Ionization Energy diagram...
  23. E

    I Calculation of mean energy value of photons in recombination

    I am interested in the calculation of the mean energy value of CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) photons from which the recombination is performed. The subject on French Wikipedia says : "Intuitively, one might say that recombination occurs when energy average of photons is of the order of the...
  24. Arubi Bushlee

    B How Do Electron Orbitals Work at Relativistic Speeds?

    So I was wondering... for no particular reason: Say you have a proton and your right arm is a particle accelerator. You throw the proton at about 90% the speed o' light. The you take your left arm which also happens to be a particle accelerator and you shoot an electron out right next to it...
  25. M

    Atomic Conservation in Ionized Hydrogen Gas

    Dear all, So I have a question concerning atomic conservation in an ionized hydrogen gas. So imagine we have ## H_2 ## initially. Later the gas is taken to an appreciable temperature such that at equilibrium the following species are present, ## e^-, \ H, \ H^+, \ H_2, \ H^-, \ \text{and} \...
  26. M

    Would this work to decrease air resistance in sports cars?

    Okay so here is my idea, not really sure how well (if at all) it would work but im wondering if it would be possible (assuming battery technology is good enough) to ionise air in front of a formula 1 car (or plane or whatever) giving it a charge (like the way lightning works) , then creating an...
  27. P

    Ionization of hydrogen atom by sinusoidal electric field

    Homework Statement "Suppose that a hydrogen atom, initially in its ground state, is placed in an oscillating electric field ##\mathcal{E}_0 \cos(\omega t) \mathbf{\hat{z}}##, with ##\hbar \omega \gg -13.6\text{eV}##. Calculate the rate of transitions to the continuum." Homework Equations ##R =...
  28. M

    Is ionization potential a function of internuclear distance?

    Has there been a study which concludes that the ionization potential of a diatomic molecule depends on the internuclear distance? For example, let this molecule interact with an EM wave, and hence after the disturbance the molecule vibrates. If subsequently I send an ionizing radiation with...
  29. A

    Need Help understanding energy and enthalpy please

    I was studying about Ionization enthalpy and I found that in many books it is described in terms of enthalpy change while in others it is described in terms of energy, although in all of them the basic definition is almost same. It is the enthalpy change when ..... or it is the energy required...
  30. J

    How easy is it to ionize Nitrogen or oxygen with beta rays?

    Hello, over the past few days I've been looking at glowing ionization tubes on YouTube. there seems to be this innate correlation and association between ionization chambers and noble gasses, like xenon, argon and neon. i was wondering is it possible for oxygen or nitrogen to glow like them ...
  31. R

    Saha equation partition function for Argon?

    This question is in regards to the degeneracy of states for an Argon atom with just one missing electron. For hydrogen the problem of finding the partition function depends on finding the the ionized state of hydrogen divided by the non-ionized state... (please see Saha equation ->...
  32. CAH

    Electron-Electron Interaction & Photon-Electron Interaction?

    I learnt that photons can exite and ionize electrons in an atom, bring them to higher energy level etc. However ive seen a few questions on electrons bombarding electrons in an atom and exiting the orbital electrons to higher energy level. Is this the same as the photoelectric effect when...
  33. CAH

    Electrons absorb exact energy photons so how is Ek possible

    Hello! I've read that electrons can only absorb photons of exactly the right amount of energy to move to a higher energy level, if its to little or too much then it doesnt absorb it at all, so my question: How can electrons be liberated from an atom with Kinetic energy when they cant absorb any...
  34. ugenetic

    Relations between workfunction, ionization, redox and fermi

    My understanding so far, critique appreciated: [1] workfunction closely relates to reduction potential Since workfunction is about boundaries and chemical reaction are mostly happening at the boundaries between bulk material, Workfunction should have a direct correlation with reduction...
  35. B

    Recombination of ion pairs in an ionization chamber

    What happens to the fill gas in an ionization chamber? Once incident radiation has created an ion pair, which has then moved to its opposite polarity electrode, is that ion pair removed from the fill gas? So if enough incident radiation is detected over a period of time all the gas would be...