What is Ionization: Definition and 283 Discussions

Ionization or ionisation is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons, often in conjunction with other chemical changes. The resulting electrically charged atom or molecule is called an ion. Ionization can result from the loss of an electron after collisions with subatomic particles, collisions with other atoms, molecules and ions, or through the interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Heterolytic bond cleavage and heterolytic substitution reactions can result in the formation of ion pairs. Ionization can occur through radioactive decay by the internal conversion process, in which an excited nucleus transfers its energy to one of the inner-shell electrons causing it to be ejected.

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  1. S

    Dose recording on Pocket dosimeter -- Is it accurate for a person's whole body?

    Pocket dosimeter consists of a small ionization chamber, if a person having pocket dosimeter moving in a radiation environment, how the dose received by the man is equivalent to the dose showing on pocket dosimeter although the exposed area of a man is quite larger than the dosimeter ?
  2. J

    B Is it possible to ionise a solid, so that it has no electrons left?

    Hi, is it possible to ionise a solid, so that it has no electrons left? Josiah
  3. I

    I Doubling Ionization of Tungsten: Effects on Energy?

    Lets say that i have i mole of tungsten atoms. They are all ionized, only one electron is removed from each atom. If i accelerate this mole of tungsten atoms through one electron volt, i would get 96.48 kj. If the mole of tungsten was doubly ionized, two electrons removed from each atom, and...
  4. Z

    Chemistry Creating KF Molecule from Neutral Atoms: A Process of Ionization and Binding

    Let's think now about the energy to create a KF molecule from neutral atoms. First we need to ionize both K and F: K loses an electron and F gains an electron. Then we have to bring the ions together. The first ionization energy of K is 418 kJ/mol and for F is 1681 kJ/mol. The electron...
  5. M

    A Probability of resonant ionization

    Hello! I am trying to make some predictions for an experiment in which we have a first ##E_2## transition in an atom driven by a laser, and then we have a second laser that is ionizing the molecule only if the first laser was resonant (i.e. if the atom was excited). For the purpose of the...
  6. A

    Chemistry Degree of Ionization in Chemistry Textbooks

    Can someone please tell me what is the chemistry textbook that available about degree of ionization? I use Chemistry the Central Science textbook by Brown. Unfortunately I couldn't find about degree of ionization in this textbook. Degree of ionization is studied in undergraduate of Mechanical...
  7. Goldhelmeth

    Formula for ionization potential reduction

    Hello, Firstly I am not sure of understanding the problem, I believe that this reduction is related to a high density plasma where the free electrons are very close to the ions and so the ions cannot be considered as separate bodies... I also believe it affects the ground energy state of...
  8. patric44

    An experiment for the determination of hydrogen ionization energy

    hi guys i saw this experiment in an old book that uses the gas vacuum tube "thyratron" for determining the hydrogen ionization energy , the idea i guess is straight forward : we set the filament current to a specific value then the electrons starts to emit from the cathode traveling its way to...
  9. I

    Ionization Energy Trends

    There is a large increase in ionization energy when an electron is removed from a p orbital versus when it is removed from a s orbital (and likewise when it is removed from the valence shell and from the inner shells). Why is there a smaller increase when successive electrons are removed from...
  10. jjson775

    Ionization Energy: Solving for n and Why I Was Wrong

    I got the right answers but have 2 questions. My first attempt was to use Equation 2 and solve for r then use Equation 3 and solve for n. My reasoning was that the photon needed to overcome the potential energy of the atom to release the electron. This gave me n =3.44. Why was I wrong? Then...
  11. S

    Trying to Understand Ionization

    It will try to produce a neutral atom but it depends on the amount of energy that electron is shot at the atom, if it is great enough energy for ionization it will produce cation, If it is not enough for ionization it will make a neutral atom or anion, I think.
  12. I

    First ionization energy of group 1 and group 2 elements

    The first ionization energy decreases between group 5 and group 6 due to the repulsion between the electrons in the p orbital. Although I understand that the effective nuclear charge increases between group 1 and group 2 elements, why isn't this the case between group 1 and group 2 elements...
  13. ilovepudding

    B Ionization energy and energy levels

    Hi, The ionization energy is defined as the minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated neutral gaseous atom. Our physics teacher also told us while explaining this concept in the context of energy levels, that it is equal...
  14. tanaygupta2000

    Ionization percentage in the Saha equation

    Plugging-in the above data, I am getting n2/n1 to be of the order of 10^25 ! I know that the percentage is out of 100.
  15. D

    % Ionisation or % 'Ionization' for non-Australians

    Hi there, I'm sure this is glaringly obvious for chem-buffs but just been coming across some Henderson-Hasselbach type questions in Basic scenarios where we're looking at basic solutions where calculating involves a [BH]/ as opposed to the regular [AH]/[A-]. I've come across wording in what...
  16. S

    X-ray production and ionization energy

    I am confused with the Kvp and Kep. I know that In the x-ray tube, after heating the filament and the electron cloud if formed, then the step-up transformer is going to increase the voltage and reduce the current to produce a high potential difference to that electrons will accelerate from the...
  17. r12214001

    Chemistry Acid ionization constant

  18. neilparker62

    Insights Intro to the Ionization Energy of Atomic Hydrogen

    Continue reading...
  19. D

    I Ionization -- Efficiently ionizing every electron off of atoms

    Is there a radiation method for efficienctly ionizing every electron off of atoms to produce strictly protons and neutrons Without generating tremendous heat?
  20. patric44

    Chemistry Why does this equation not give me the ionization energy of lithium?

    i am trying to calculate the first ionization energy for lithium with this equation but it seems to work only with hydrogen ? i put nf = infinity and ni =2 ,and z = 3 for lithium and it gives about 30 ev not 5.39172 ev which is the value for lithium : i will appreciate any help in this
  21. C

    I Confusion on binding energy and ionization energy.

    1) I know that the binding energy is the energy that holds a nucleus together ( which equals to the mass defect E = mc2 ). But what does it mean when we are talking about binding energy of an electron ( eg. binding energy = -Z2R/n2 ? ). Some website saying that " binding energy = - ionization...
  22. T

    Energy released upon ionization of different gases

    Hi, I am interested in plasma physics. I understand that once a gas (say Argon) is ionized, light (electromagnetic radiation) is emitted. This is clearly observable from the coloured glow of the gas when it is in a plasma state. Where does the energy for these electromagnetic rays come from? Is...
  23. BryanCasanelli

    A Dissociative ionization Monte Carlo simulations

    Hi, I'm wondering if there any exists a Monte Carlo free code that can simulate dissociative ionization, per example a beam of protons on water, and then track the fragments (from water) and their energy. Thanks in advance!
  24. shahbaznihal

    Electron density Saha Ionization Equation

    Saha-Boltzmann equation describes the ratio of number densities between any two consecutive ionization states and its product with the number electron density i.e. $$n_e\frac{n_{i+1}}{n_{i}}$$ Here, ##n_e## is the electron number density, ##n_{i+1}## is the number density in ##i+1## ionization...
  25. S

    I Ionization at low densities

    John Baez says here http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/end.html What is the technical term for this process? Is there some online stuff that explains this in more detail?
  26. John Greger

    Estimate ionization energy

    Homework Statement In He-like Carbon, C V, the excitation energy of 1s3s ##^1S## is 2851180 ##cm^-1## and for 1s4s ##^1S## it is 2988246 ##cm^-1##. Estimate the ionization energy. Compare with the value in the NIST database! Homework Equations ##E_{io}= T + E_{excitation}, ## ##T =...
  27. patric44

    I Is this just a normal fluorescence of glass molecules?

    hi guys i recently had built a HV power supply out of an old Flyback transformer i had laying around , i think it produces about 10KV ~ 15KV not very sure but it could arc at about ( 6mm in air ) , and as you can see i tried to connect it to a 15W smal light bulb ( the positive terminal...
  28. A

    A Beta Decay Rates Changing by Ionization?

    I recently read about a beta decay isotope (Rhenium-187),whose half life was changed from 42 X 109 years to 33 years, just by stripping the nucleus of all it's electrons. Why does this allow for a faster decay, and does this apply to all beta decay nuclei, or just Rhenium 187?
  29. astroscout

    High Voltage Discharges or Explosions from Powerlines -- why these colors?

    Hi...Here is a GIF of some electrical explosions that I recorded with my full spectrum camera. These power lines supply power to a neighboring county so it didn't affect my area. In the upper atmosphere we see something similar in Transient Luminous Events (TLEs). In the case of the blue in Blue...
  30. C

    A Dieletric breakdown of air

    Although I have seen values such as 3 kV/mm for the dielectric breakdown of air, I was curious if there was an analytical or semi-analytical model of the ionization of say N2 under a uniform electric field. I am aware of Peek's law. Am I correct in assuming it is empirical? How might one connect...
  31. I

    Hydrogen Ionization Rates Using Time Dependent Perturbation

    Homework Statement [/B] Calculate the rate of ionization of a hydrogen atom in the 2p state in a monochromatic external electric field, averaged over the component of angular momentum in the direction of the field. Ignore the spin of the particles. In this case we can write...
  32. neilparker62

    Measure ionization energy (Hydrogen/Deuterium)

    Just wondering if there's any accurate method for direct measurement of the ionization energy of atomic Hydrogen and/or Deuterium ? There's lots of measurements on transitions between various hydrogen/deuterium energy levels but not (it seems) to the limit where n = infinity. Alternatively...
  33. C

    Find the relation of chemical potentials in chemical reaction In hydrogen atom ionization

    Homework Statement In hydrogen atom ionization H→p+e show that ##μ_H=μ_p+μ_r## Homework Equations G=μN (N is the number of particles) The Attempt at a Solution (1) I think the question should say "Find chemical potential relation AT EQUILIBRIUM", don't you think? (2) My professor said that...
  34. C

    Mass Spectra -- determining the method of ionization

    Is there a way to look at mass spectra and determine the method of ionization? I.e., whether it's electrospray, FAB, MALDI, etc.
  35. reese houseknecht

    I Air Breakdown With 980nm Laser: 1microsec/250mW

    So i have been looking at a 1microsecond pulsed 250milliwatt 980nm laser. I watched a video where a guy outputed 50millijoules at 5 nanoseconds and achieved air breakdown. I am wondering since maybe mine is higher energy it will do the same or i need faster pulses?
  36. reese houseknecht

    Calculating how many Joules are required to make a photon

    A double covalent bond of nitrogen (N2) is 15.58eV Now let's go into a example. if i have a laser that is 477nm and i do 1240/477nm then i get 2.6eV per photon. Now if i do (15.58eV / 2.6eV) it equals ~6 photons. Now to figure out how many Joules are required for 1 photon I do (6.626*10^-34S *...
  37. F

    Ionized Gas Cables: Can You Buy Them?

    Hi! Does it exist cables using ionized gas / plasma as the conductor available to buy? Thanks in advance!
  38. B

    Determining ionization energy of Lithium.

    Homework Statement What is the third ionization energy of Li in its ground state? A. 4.91 E-18 J B. 6.54 E-18 J C. 7.79 E-18 J D. 9.20 E-18 J E. 1.96 E-17 J Homework Equations Maybe: EN=-(2.18E-18)(Z2/N2) The Attempt at a Solution Plugging in values doesn't give me any of the answers. At...
  39. L

    [College Chemistry] Electron Affinity and Ionization Energy

    Homework Statement Here's the pic of the problem and my work The Attempt at a Solution I'm not sure how I'm suppose to calculate the energy change? Did i do it correctly in the picture? For number 9, I just added IE1 and IE2 and subtracted EA1 to get a total of 3200.3. This means that the...
  40. A

    I Difference between binding energy and ionization energy

    Hi! I wonder since some time why ionization energies are not equal to binding energies. For instance, take the case of aluminum in the following configuration [Ne]3s²3p Ionization energy ~ 6 eV Binding energy ~ 5 eV Where does this difference come from ? Thanks in advance
  41. G

    B Cu's 29th ionization energy

    So I was playing with periodic table and discovered Cu's 29th ionization energy(cu with no electron) is 1116105 KJ/mole . Then i searched on google to convert to MeV which is 6.9661798e+21 , then I thought that one uranium 235 produce 200mev so to make that you would need around 3.5e+19...
  42. E

    Potential Necessary for Ionization by Collision

    Homework Statement A molecule of nitrogen has a diameter of 3.2 x 10-8 cm and can be ionized upon absorbing 14.5 eV. what potential must be applied to a parallel-plate ion chamber operating at a pressure of 50mm of mercury, and with an electrode separation of 3.0 cm, in order to produce...
  43. T

    Standard electrode potential vs ionization energy

    Here is the Wikipedia page on electrode potentials. Here's how I'm reading it, which makes no sense: If a singly ionized atom of strontium donates an electron to the hydrogen in the standard hydrogen electrode, this will emit 4.101 eV of heat (395.68 kJ/mol). If cesium is used, there will be...
  44. Turbotanten

    Find the ionization energy of a simple model atom

    1. Homework Statement A simple model atom is composed of a point-like nucleus with charge ##+Q## and an electron charge distribution $$ \rho(\vec{r})=-\dfrac{\left|Q\right|}{\pi a^2 r}exp(-2r/a) $$ where ##a## is a constant. Show that the ionization energy (the energy to remove the electron to...
  45. esha

    Why is degree of ionization inversely proportional to....

    Degree of ionization is the number of particles which dissociate by the total number of particles. if that's the case then higher number of particles should mean higher number of particles which get dissociated. this should also mean higher the concentration the degree of ionization will also...
  46. EL_bob

    Magnetic assisted rocket engine

    Hello everybody! I have been thinking about something for a while now. I would like to make a magnetic nozzle for a rocket engine. Basically, I would like to ionize the hot and high pressure gaz in the combustion chamber and then use a strong magnetic field to adjust the nozzle throat...
  47. T

    Deriving the ionization energy of a hydrogen atom

    Hi, I've just gotten started with basic quantum physics in physics class and we've just talked about ionization energy. It is stated that the energy of a hydrogen atom is -13.60eV (or -2.179aJ). I assume this is the potential energy (and that this is the reason the atom has a lower mass than the...
  48. Daniel Petka

    Gamma photon ionization

    Gamma rays scatter and ionize atoms, which stretches out their wavelength, right? How many ions could a single gamma ray photon create before it's absorbed due to the photoelectric effect?
  49. rodv92

    Decreasing gas breakdown distance in a spark gap with UV

    Hello ! I am currently investigating a technique that would allow several spark gaps to breakdown synchronously in an enclosed but not hermetical cavity, flushed with N2 at 1atm and ~25°C My idea was to use "indirect" photoionization (basically a synthetic fused quartz UV flash discharge inside...
  50. Evangeline101

    Auto Ionization of water

    Homework Statement Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution [/B] I'm confused with this question... first off isn't heat being removed from the product side since the Kw value is on the product side? If I assume heat is being removed from the product side, wouldn't the reaction shift...