New Naming Rules for Exotic Hadrons at the LHC: LHCb Collaboration Paper (2022)

In summary, the LHCb collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider has developed a new set of rules for naming composite particles bound by the strong force, in order to provide a consistent naming convention for the newly discovered exotic hadrons. The proposed rules extend the existing protocol and include symbols based on measured quantum numbers and superscripts indicating isospin, parity, and G-parity. Subscripts are also added to denote hidden or open flavour quantum numbers, as well as spin and mass in parentheses. These new naming rules have practical relevance to anyone dealing with high energy hadron physics and are outlined in a recent paper published by the LHCb collaboration.
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ohwilleke
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TL;DR Summary
The LHCb has come up with new rules for naming tetraquarks and pentaquarks.
The LHCb collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider has developed a new set of rules for naming composite particles bound by the strong force (i.e. hadrons) that are contemplated by existing rules for naming them. This has significant practical relevance to anyone dealing with high energy hadron physics.

The paper also neatly summarizes the new hadrons that have been discovered at the LHC, some of which have made this naming convention necessary (although others were predicted to exist in advance):
Screen%20Shot%202022-07-01%20at%2012.25.43%20PM.png

The new paper and its abstract are as follows:

Many new exotic hadrons, that do not fit into the existing naming scheme for hadrons, have been discovered over the past few years. A new scheme is set out, extending the existing protocol, in order to provide a consistent naming convention for these newly discovered states, and other new hadrons that may be discovered in future.
LHCb collaboration, "Exotic hadron naming convention" arXiv:2206.15233 (June 30, 2022) (LHCb-PUB-2022-013).

The proposed new naming rules are as follows (which is explained at greater length in the fourteen page pdf):

1. As in the current scheme, symbols are assigned based on measured quantum numbers, rather than speculation about the degrees of freedom within the hadron.

2. There is no change to the existing scheme for any state that does not unambiguously have four- or five-quark content.

3. States with minimum four-quark content are labelled T; states with minimum five-quark content are labelled P. T states are mesons, while P states are baryons.<2>

<2> The current scheme is limited to states with minimum four- or five-quark content. It should, however, be possible to extend later to states with minimum six- or seven-quark content, if necessary. It is also limited to the allowed isospin values of conventional hadrons, although in principle value of I up to 2 for T states and 5/2 for P states are possible. Extension of the scheme at a later date to cover more isospin values will also be possible if necessary.

4. A superscript is added to indicate the isospin, and (where appropriate) parity and G-parity. The superscripts follow existing conventions for labelling these properties, which differ for the cases of mesons with zero or non-zero net strangeness and heavy flavour quantum numbers, and differ again for baryons.
(a) For T states with zero net strangeness and heavy flavour quantum numbers, the symbols from the first two rows of Table 1 are used, to cover the eight possibilities of I = 0, 1, and even or odd P and G-parity. The symbol ω is used (instead of φ) for the case I = 0, P and G odd.
Screen%20Shot%202022-07-01%20at%2012.15.11%20PM.png

(b) For T states with non-zero strangeness, charm or beauty quantum numbers, the G-parity is not defined, and therefore the superscript encodes only the isospin and parity. The labels η, τ, π are used for I = 0, 1/2 , 1 with P odd, and f, θ, a are used for I = 0, 1/2 , 1 with P even.<3>
<3> The symbols for I = 1/2 refer to the historical “τ–θ” puzzle, in which decays of the kaon to three or two pions, which are respectively parity-odd and parity-even final states, were denoted by τ and θ.
(c) For P states, the superscript indicates the isospin only: it is Λ, N, Σ, ∆ for I = 0, 1/2 , 1, 3/2. These superscripts are summarised in Table 4. It should be stressed that the superscript does not convey the spin (see below); the distinction between π and ρ is thus G-parity rather than spin, as is also formally the case for conventional mesons in the PDG convention. Note also that there is no need to add ∗ to denote natural spin-parity mesons.
Screen%20Shot%202022-07-01%20at%2012.09.29%20PM.png


5. Subscripts Υ, ψ and φ are added to denote hidden beauty, charm and strangeness. These should be in order of mass, where more than one is needed, and can be repeated if necessary. Since ss¯ content may mix with uu¯ + d ¯d content, the φ subscript should only be applied where the ss¯ content is clear. It must be stressed that this reuse of the symbols for vector mesons conveys information only about the quark content, not about their arrangement or other quantum numbers.

6. Subscripts b, c and s are added to denote open flavour quantum numbers. These should be in order of mass, where more than one is needed, and can be repeated if necessary. They indicate the quark content, rather than the flavour quantum number. If only one such symbol is needed, it should always be that of the quark (b, c, s) rather than the antiquark (¯b, c¯, s¯). If more than one is needed, the symbols can be those of quark or antiquark but the first should always be a quark. If subscripts are needed to indicate both hidden and open flavour, the symbols for hidden flavour should appear first.

7. For T states an additional subscript should be added to indicate the spin J, while for P states, the spin-parity should be added after the name. These labels are thus added in the same way as in the current naming schemes for mesons and baryons, respectively. This information is omitted when it is not yet known.

8. For neutral T states with open flavour quantum numbers, the particle and antiparticle are distinguished by the addition of an overline to the latter. The “particle” is chosen to be that with the quark content specified in the subscript.4 Overlines are never used for charged T states, as in the current scheme for mesons. P states with baryon number +1 (−1) are always written without (with) an overline, as in the current scheme for baryons.

<4> The choice of which neutral meson is particle and which is antiparticle does not have any physical significance, it is simply whether the symbol does not or does include an overline.

9. For all hadrons, the mass, in units of MeV/c 2, should be added in parentheses, and the charge superscript should be added where appropriate.

10. In practice it is anticipated that some labels will be omitted where they are considered unnecessary.
The new scheme renames a number of existing exotic hadrons:

Screen%20Shot%202022-07-01%20at%2012.20.44%20PM.png
 
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  • #2
LHCb has discovered so many of them that I expect everyone else to adopt their proposal.

The one thing I dislike is the Tb superscript that has nothing to do with bottom quarks.
 
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Proposed New Hadron Naming Rulees. (Thought I posted that)\

I don't like the T. That should be reserved for top-flavored hadrons. "But", you say, "there aren't any top flavored hadrons. The top quark decays before it hadroinizes." This is usually, but not alwasy true. The top quark forms hadrons [itex]\Lambda_{QCD}/\Gamma(t)[/itex] which is like 1/6.
 
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1. As in the current scheme, symbols are assigned based on measured quantum numbers, rather than speculation about the degrees of freedom within the hadron.

2. There is no change to the existing scheme for any state that does not unambiguously have four- or five-quark content.

3. States with minimum four-quark content are labelled T; states with minimum five-quark content are labelled P. T states are mesons, while P states are baryons.<2>

<2> The current scheme is limited to states with minimum four- or five-quark content. It should, however, be possible to extend later to states with minimum six- or seven-quark content, if necessary.
Note that since speculation about the degrees of freedom is excluded as basis of naming... so long as they do not extend the scheme to states with minimum 6 quark content, they do not need to rename deuteron.
 
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Vanadium 50 said:
The top quark forms hadrons [itex]\Lambda_{QCD}/\Gamma(t)[/itex] which is like 1/6.
Can you explain where you get this value from? What cross-section is that? I've dug up an old paper on decay versus hadronization for top quarks, if that helps.
 
  • #6
It's just dimensional scaling. I don't think there is a calculation, and I don't think a calculation is even possible. What is your definition of a hadron? Is theρ one? That lives 10x longer than the top. What about heaviwe states with even shorter lifeimes?

In any event, Lynne Orr's paper - which predates the top discovery - says it forms hadrons 80% of the time. That's a little longer than my 1/6, but the same ballpark.

The problem is how does one identify these states. But I don't think that's a good reason to decide we don't need the particle name any more.
 
  • #7
Vanadium 50 said:
Proposed New Hadron Naming Rulees. (Thought I posted that)\

I don't like the T. That should be reserved for top-flavored hadrons. "But", you say, "there aren't any top flavored hadrons. The top quark decays before it hadroinizes." This is usually, but not alwasy true. The top quark forms hadrons [itex]\Lambda_{QCD}/\Gamma(t)[/itex] which is like 1/6.
Good point. I believe that there is an existing proposed nomenclature for hadrons with top quarks that uses "T" that is conflicted with by this notation. I've seen a number less than 1/6 for this (can't recall where), but that doesn't really matter. The important point is that top quark hadrons, while rare, aren't actually forbidden by the SM, just improbable.

What would you say is the best alternative?
 
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  • #8
mfb said:
The one thing I dislike is the Tb superscript that has nothing to do with bottom quarks.
Another good point.
 
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Related to New Naming Rules for Exotic Hadrons at the LHC: LHCb Collaboration Paper (2022)

1. What are exotic hadrons?

Exotic hadrons are particles that are made up of quarks and gluons, just like regular hadrons, but have a different combination of quarks and/or have additional subatomic particles. These particles are not predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics and are therefore considered "exotic."

2. Why are new naming rules needed for exotic hadrons?

The naming rules for exotic hadrons were developed in the 1960s and were based on the understanding of particle physics at that time. However, with advancements in technology and new discoveries, these rules are no longer sufficient to classify the growing number of exotic hadrons being observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Therefore, new naming rules are needed to accurately describe and classify these particles.

3. What are the new naming rules proposed by the LHCb Collaboration?

The LHCb Collaboration has proposed a new naming scheme that takes into account the internal structure and properties of exotic hadrons. This includes the use of quantum numbers, such as spin and parity, to provide a more precise and descriptive name for each particle. Additionally, the new naming rules also consider the production and decay modes of the particle.

4. How will the new naming rules affect the study of exotic hadrons?

The new naming rules will provide a more systematic and consistent way of naming and categorizing exotic hadrons, which will make it easier for scientists to communicate and collaborate on research. It will also help to better understand the properties and behavior of these particles, leading to further advancements in the field of particle physics.

5. When will the new naming rules be implemented?

The new naming rules proposed by the LHCb Collaboration are expected to be implemented in 2022. This will coincide with the start of the LHC's third run, which will provide even more data on exotic hadrons. However, the new naming rules will continue to be refined and updated as new discoveries are made.

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