# Number of moles = volume/molar mass?

• Chemistry
• Tiptronic
In summary, the amount of glucose used in the Osazone test (0.2ml) can be justified by the fact that there is a molar excess of Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (0.0028 mol) compared to the amount of glucose (0.000139 mol) required by the ratio of the reaction equation (1:3). This ensures that all of the glucose is converted to osazone and allows for a small quantity of glucose solution to be used in the test. Additionally, the molar mass of glucose (180 g/mol) was used to calculate the number of moles of glucose present in 0.2ml of solution (0.000139 mol) which further supports the use
Tiptronic
Question:
0.2ml glucose solution.
Molar mass of glucose = 180 g/mol

How many moles?

If it was a mass in grams it would be easy:

n = mass/molar mass

But what do I do now its a volume?
Can I still use the same relationship, since grams is equivalent to ml isn't it?
If yes, then what does the unit of 'n' become...ml/mol?

Tiptronic said:
Question:
0.2ml glucose solution.
Molar mass of glucose = 180 g/mol

How many moles?

If it was a mass in grams it would be easy:

n = mass/molar mass

But what do I do now its a volume?
Can I still use the same relationship, since grams is equivalent to ml isn't it?
If yes, then what does the unit of 'n' become...ml/mol?

Grams are not equal to mL. $cm^{3}$ are equal to mL.

Are you given the concentration (measured as M or mol/L)?

Tiptronic said:
Question:
0.2ml glucose solution.
Molar mass of glucose = 180 g/mol

How many moles?
The question is either incomplete or wrong. Please post the COMPLETE question, EXACTLY as it is given to you.

If it was a mass in grams it would be easy:

n = mass/molar mass
Correct.

But what do I do now its a volume?
Can I still use the same relationship, since grams is equivalent to ml isn't it?
No, you can't.

If yes, then what does the unit of 'n' become...ml/mol?
The number of moles only has one unit : "moles". Anything that is dimensionally different from this can not be a unit for the number of moles.

Thanks for the quick replies guys.

Glucose + 3 Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride --> Osazone + Phenylamine + Ammonia + Water

These are what I am using in this reaction:

0.2ml of a Lucozade drink (not diluted, so its 100% concentrated as you'd buy it off the shelf)
0.4g Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride
0.6g crystallized sodium acetate
4ml distilled water.

What i need to do is justify the use of 0.2ml of the glucose drink by using the ratio in the equation (1:3) and by working out the no. of moles of Phenylhydrazine Hydrochloride... n = 0.4/142.5 = 2.8 x 10^23

Now I need to work out the number of moles of the Glucose drink.

Any ideas?

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Just thought of something:

Could i use this:

n = concentration x volume

Though i doubt "100%" is a concentration that can be used in the above relationship?

Tiptronic said:
Just thought of something:

Could i use this:

n = concentration x volume

Though i doubt "100%" is a concentration that can be used in the above relationship?
No, 100% is not a concentration (since n = concentration x volume, with n in units of moles and volume in units of L, then concentration must have units of mol/L).

So, there is no way I can work out the concentration from the information I have?

So could you tell me how I can justify the use of 0.2ml of the Lucozade Glucose drink?

Sorry I am an idiot. http://www.tamscc.org/forum/images/smilies/bang_head.gif

The whole point of this investigation was to find the glucose amount: I did an experiment and found that in one bottle (380ml) there is 47g of glucose.

Thus, if 380ml contained 47g, then 0.2ml would contain: (0.2ml/380ml) x 47g = 0.025g

So now I know this:

0.2ml of 100% concentrated glucose containing 0.025g glucose.
Glucose molar mass = 180 g/mol

So can I now find 'n'?

n = mass/Molar mass
n = 0.025/180
n = 0.000139 mol

Please tell me this works now? And does this get me any closer to justifying why I've used 0.2ml in this Osazone test?

The Glucose is 0.000139 mol and the Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride is 0.0028 mol.

According to the equation the ratio is 1:3.

0.0028/0.000139 = 20 so its not as if there is three times as many molecules in the Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride than the glucose...

Help...

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Tiptronic said:
Sorry I am an idiot. http://www.tamscc.org/forum/images/smilies/bang_head.gif

The whole point of this investigation was to find the glucose amount: I did an experiment and found that in one bottle (380ml) there is 47g of glucose.

Thus, if 380ml contained 47g, then 0.2ml would contain: (0.2ml/380ml) x 47g = 0.025g

So now I know this:

0.2ml of 100% concentrated glucose containing 0.025g glucose.
Glucose molar mass = 180 g/mol

So can I now find 'n'?

n = mass/Molar mass
n = 0.025/180
n = 0.000139 mol

Please tell me this works now? And does this get me any closer to justifying why I've used 0.2ml in this Osazone test?

Thanks.

Get rid of "100% concentrated glucose"; it is wrong (you have a solution of glucose, meaning dissolved solute [glucose] in a solvent [likely water]).

Assuming your molar mass is exactly 180 g/mol, then I get 1.37E-4 (not 1.39E-4, as you get, although it might not matter much in the end, depending on sig figs).

Based on what you said you needed to do, you can take this amount and determine whether or not it is a reasonable amount of glucose needed in the reaction. If it is, you have justified yourself.

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Thank you for the reply geoffjb.

Would this be a good explanation?

The Glucose is 0.000139 mol and the Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride is 0.0028 mol.

According to the equation the ratio is 1:3.

0.0028/0.000139 = 20 (2sf)

This means that the phenylhydrazine hydrochloride is more than 3 times the amount of glucose (in terms of mols) thus satisfying the ratio of the equation.

Looking at the equation:

Glucose + 3 Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride --> Osazone + Phenylamine + Ammonia + Water

The Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride should be in excess so that all the glucose is turned into the osazone. I have shown that the Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride is definitely in excess, satisfying the ratio of the equation, and thus this justifies using a small quantity of glucose drink (0.2ml) for the osazone test.

How does that sound?

Tiptronic said:
Thank you for the reply geoffjb.

Would this be a good explanation?

The Glucose is 0.000139 mol and the Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride is 0.0028 mol.

According to the equation the ratio is 1:3.

0.0028/0.000139 = 20 (2sf)

This means that the phenylhydrazine hydrochloride is more than 3 times the amount of glucose (in terms of mols) thus satisfying the ratio of the equation.

Looking at the equation:

Glucose + 3 Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride --> Osazone + Phenylamine + Ammonia + Water

The Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride should be in excess so that all the glucose is turned into the osazone. I have shown that the Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride is definitely in excess, satisfying the ratio of the equation, and thus this justifies using a small quantity of glucose drink (0.2ml) for the osazone test.

How does that sound?

If the theoretical ratio is 1:3 and the actual ratio is 1:20, are you justified in using only 0.2 mL of glucose?

If this is a scientific lab report, don't use "I".

Firstly, do I not need to multiply the 0.0028 mol by 3, if the equation says that 3 mols reacts with 1 mol of glucose?

If the theoretical ratio is 1:3 and the actual ratio is 1:20, are you justified in using only 0.2 mL of glucose?

So you're saying 0.2ml is too little? Doesnt 1:20 means that the phenylhydrazine hydrochloride is in excess? Then isn't that ok, since there is enough to react with all of the glucose? I don't quite understand.

Tiptronic said:
Firstly, do I not need to multiply the 0.0028 mol by 3, if the equation says that 3 mols reacts with 1 mol of glucose?
Based on your equation, three moles of phenylhydrazine hydrochloride are required to react with one mole of glucose. Your multiplication factors must account for this.

Tiptronic said:
So you're saying 0.2ml is too little? Doesnt 1:20 means that the phenylhydrazine hydrochloride is in excess? Then isn't that ok, since there is enough to react with all of the glucose? I don't quite understand.
You're right; it's definitely enough to react with all the glucose. However, since I don't know the original wording of the question, I don't know if such excess is "justified", as you were initially asking. Only you can determine this.

geoffjb said:
Based on your equation, three moles of phenylhydrazine hydrochloride are required to react with one mole of glucose. Your multiplication factors must account for this.

Sorry, I didnt understand. So do I multiply the 0.0028 mol of Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride by 3, and then form a ratio from that?

You're right; it's definitely enough to react with all the glucose. However, since I don't know the original wording of the question, I don't know if such excess is "justified", as you were initially asking. Only you can determine this.

Its part of my write-up of my investigation. So I am ok in saying that such a small amount is justified, as the Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride should be in excess anyway for best results of this Osazone test?

Tiptronic said:
Sorry, I didnt understand. So do I multiply the 0.0028 mol of Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride by 3, and then form a ratio from that?
Yes, in determining limiting reagents, you use a multiplication factor.

Tiptronic said:
Its part of my write-up of my investigation. So I am ok in saying that such a small amount is justified, as the Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride should be in excess anyway for best results of this Osazone test?
Okay.

Thanks for that, really appreciate it.

Btw, you wouldn't happen to know of any websites with information on the osazone, why its solid at room temperature and why it precipitates out? I've looked a lot but to no avail.

Thanks.

Tiptronic said:
Thanks for that, really appreciate it.

Btw, you wouldn't happen to know of any websites with information on the osazone, why its solid at room temperature and why it precipitates out? I've looked a lot but to no avail.

Thanks.
The physical state of osazone at room temperature would be dependent on the intermolecular forces between the molecules.

It would precipitate out simply because it is insoluble in the solvent. Remember that "like dissolves like".

More information on either question requires more in-depth analysis of the molecular structure of osazone.

http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/jcesoft/cca/cca5/MAIN/1ORGANIC/ORG18/TRAM18/C/THUMBS.HTM might help.

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Thanks again. I hope I haven't taken up too much of your time.

Tiptronic said:
Thanks again. I hope I haven't taken up too much of your time.
It was my pleasure.

Hi again. I've stayed up all night and I've nearly lost the will to live.

Is the science of this ok?

The osazone that is precipitated in this reaction is a solid at room temperature. It has a high boiling point due to its structure and the intermolecular forces acting on it. There are a number of reasons for its high boiling point. Firstly, the size of this osazone molecule is quite big (its molecular mass is 358 gmol-1), which means that it has more electrons and more nuclei that create more Van der Waals forces. Molecular shape is another factor – molecules linear in shape have higher boiling points than their isomers with spherical shapes because the former has a greater contact surface area and thus relatively greater Van der Waals attractive forces.

This osazone is not soluble in water, because “like dissolves like”, and since water is a polar solvent and osazone is a non-polar molecule, the osazone will stay as a precipitate.

Can i add any more? This osazone is not polar is it - so it can't have permanant dipoles? And it doesn't do hydrogen bonding does it?

http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/jcesoft/cca/cca5/GRAPHTRAM/TRAM18/18C.GIF

Thanks once again.

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## 1. What Does the Formula 'Number of Moles = Volume / Molar Mass' Represent?

This formula is a misunderstanding. The correct relationship involving moles, volume, and molar mass is: Number of moles = Mass / Molar mass. It's important to note that volume cannot be directly divided by molar mass to find the number of moles. The number of moles is a measure of the quantity of a substance, and it's calculated by dividing the substance's mass by its molar mass.

## 2. How is Molar Mass Used to Calculate the Number of Moles?

Molar mass, the mass of one mole of a substance, is used to convert between the mass of a substance and the number of moles. By dividing the mass of the sample by its molar mass (given in grams per mole), you can calculate the number of moles contained in that sample.

## 3. Can Volume be Used to Calculate the Number of Moles?

Volume can be used to calculate the number of moles for gases using the Ideal Gas Law, where the relationship is given by PV = nRT (P: pressure, V: volume, n: number of moles, R: gas constant, T: temperature). For liquids and solids, volume isn't directly used to calculate moles without additional information like density.

## 4. What is the Importance of the Mole Concept in Chemistry?

The mole concept is crucial in chemistry as it provides a bridge between the atomic/molecular scale and the macroscopic world. It allows chemists to count particles by weighing them. This concept is fundamental in stoichiometry, which deals with the quantitative relationships of reactants and products in chemical reactions.

## 5. How Do You Determine the Molar Mass of a Substance?

Molar mass is determined by summing the atomic masses of all the atoms in a molecule of the substance. The atomic masses are found on the periodic table and are typically expressed in atomic mass units (amu). For a compound, add the atomic masses of all constituent atoms.

## 6. What are Common Mistakes to Avoid When Calculating Moles?

Common mistakes include confusing mass and molar mass, and using incorrect units. Always ensure that the mass of the substance is in grams and the molar mass is in grams per mole. For gases, remember to use the Ideal Gas Law and ensure all units are consistent.

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