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## Homework Statement

In calculating stresses, how do we determine when we have a negative in front of the question and when we do not have it. I am really confused, meaning I have not understood the concept, but the examples I am looking at some have got σ= My/I whilst others have σ= -My/I.

## Homework Equations

σ= My/I

σ= -My/I

Hopefully they get uploaded properly. The first two use the first equation, whilst the the other two use the second equation

Thanks for the help.