I guess the thread title says it all: what are the benefits of having a wing fixed to the fuselage at the shoulder as compared to mid or low fixing and vice versa?
To accommodate a folding wing, the designers considered retracting the main landing gear rearward, but for the chord of wing selected, it was difficult to fit undercarriage struts long enough to provide sufficient clearance for the large propeller. Their solution was an inverted gull wing, a similar layout to the one used by Germany's Junkers Ju 87 dive bomber, considerably shortening the length of the main gear legs. The anhedral of the wing's center-section also permitted the wing and fuselage to meet at the optimum angle for minimizing drag, without the need for wing root fairings. Offsetting these benefits, the bent wing was more difficult to construct and weighed more than a straight one.
Ding-Ding! We have a winner. Back in the days before wiki (heck, before Al Gore invented the Internet!), I used to sit and watch Black Sheep Squadron, and wonder, why in the world would you design a wing like that? I finally found the answer in an aviation book about fighter designs.
True, but that's not usually the main driver, except for aerobatic aircraft and fighters.Aircraft with wings lower on the fuselage have better rolling capabilities, but is fairly unstable. Wings mid fuselage are designed for manuverability and are still pretty unstable. Wings on top give the best stability but less manuverability.
All three positions provides a flyable monoplane aircraft. Whether the position is a pro or con is directly dependent on the aircraft mission.
Most monoplane aircraft that have the same mission usually have the same wing position.
High Wings has the following attributes:
- uninterrupted lift surface has highest oswald efficiency factor
- fuel in wet wing can be gravity fed to engine; however, this also makes it more difficult to fill and increase potential for fire in a crash
- longer takeoff run than a mid- or low-wing
- shorter landing roll than mid- or low-wing (wing in ground effect)
- cantilevered wing requires full depth and width wing spar usually right where the pilot head wants to be
- Excellent downward visibility; however, poor upward visibility which is required when in a turn
- Most stable of the three positions; thus, poor in maneuverability
- easier for passengers and cargo to ingress and egress
- highest structural efficiency when wing is externally braced (reduce wing spar cross section and wing skins also, braces are in tension during highest load condition)
- Easiest to fly, but boring
Low Wings attributes are usually the reverse of the high wing attributes and the mid-wing is somewhere in between