Here's a quick question...though it may stick on your mind for a while and become a long question. Are all light waves going to be stable for sending communications or is...this is semi rhetorical...the freqeuency of the light going to make the communication of data subject to interstellar mediums. Also, an interesting thing to think about is that if you sent data in a straight line many many light years away what is the probability that the communication will or won't be interfered with by suns and path crossing asteroids. Perhaps a series of satellites and refocusers could be used to move communications around star systems. Imagine if they were stealthed too. One of the only ways to intercept these communications would include having knowledge of the language or being able to decipher the intercept. Then you'd need to triangulate the source and destroy the satellite; or in a cunning show of evil genius transmit communications with a synthesizer that mimic the voice of the communication to set traps...I know...I know...theory crafting is semi frowned upon here. However, it seems plausible a highly intelligent race may be doing this for security out there somewhere, and really, the foundation for such claims that this may be occurring are based on real possible science. For anybody that doesn't know that reads this we have a satellite that has left the solar system that still sends communications back to earth. More on topic with my initial question. Would the wave group equation for interstellar communications turn out to be a complex matrices with material equations in it to determine the effect of the mediums between origin and destination or do you think it could be justifiably and accurately represented by one simple classical equation...once again...partially rhetorical because I don't see how with all the evidence of doppler shifting we could expect w(f(i)) to be the same as w(f(f)). Lets try to get a good discussion going on this.