The United States Naval Reserve (Women's Reserve), better known as the WAVES (for Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service), was the women's branch of the United States Naval Reserve during World War II. It was established on July 21, 1942 by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on July 30. This authorized the U.S. Navy to accept women into the Naval Reserve as commissioned officers and at the enlisted level, effective for the duration of the war plus six months. The purpose of the law was to release officers and men for sea duty and replace them with women in shore establishments. Mildred H. McAfee, on leave as president of Wellesley College, became the first director of the WAVES. She was commissioned a lieutenant commander on August 3, 1942, and later promoted to commander and then to captain.
The notion of women serving in the Navy was not widely supported in the Congress or by the Navy, even though some of the lawmakers and naval personnel did support the need for uniformed women during World War II. Public Law 689, allowing women to serve in the Navy, was due in large measure to the efforts of the Navy's Women's Advisory Council, Margaret Chung, and Eleanor Roosevelt, the First Lady of the United States.
To be eligible for officer candidate school, women had to be aged 20 to 49 and possess a college degree or have two years of college and two years of equivalent professional or business experience. Volunteers at the enlisted level had to be aged 20 to 35 and possess a high school or a business diploma, or have equivalent experience. The WAVES were primarily white, but 72 African-American women eventually served. The Navy's training of most WAVE officer candidates took place at Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts. Specialized training for officers was conducted on several college campuses and naval facilities. Most enlisted members received recruit training at Hunter College, in the Bronx, New York City. After recruit training, some women attended specialized training courses on college campuses and at naval facilities.
The WAVES served at 900 stations in the United States. The territory of Hawaii was the only overseas station where their staff was assigned. Many female officers entered fields previously held by men, such as medicine and engineering. Enlisted women served in jobs from clerical to parachute riggers. Many women experienced workplace hostility from their male counterparts. The Navy's lack of clear-cut policies, early on, was the source of many of the difficulties. The WAVES' peak strength was 86,291 members. Upon demobilization of the officer and enlisted members, Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal, Fleet Admiral Ernest King, and Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz all commended the WAVES for their contributions to the war effort.
Apparently, the direction of wave propagation is the direction of ##\vec{E}\times\vec{B}##.
From what I have seen so far, given Maxwell's equations, the set of solutions giving plane waves has the characteristics that
1) electric field has only a component in the ##y## direction
2) magnetic...
My initial thought was to model the wave as
$$y(x,t)=Ae^{-B(x-t)^2}$$
This question is part of an automated grading system and the above entry is considered incorrect.
I think I need to incorporate the information that the speed of the wave is ##v## somehow.
TL;DR Summary: The reason to force us consider complex solution for harmonic motion.
Reference textbook “The Physics of Waves” in MIT website:
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/8-03sc-physics-iii-vibrations-and-waves-fall-2016/resources/mit8_03scf16_textbook/
Chapter 1 - Section 1.3 (see attached...
TL;DR Summary: A fluid on a vertically vibrating plate will, upon reaching a certain frequency and acceleration, produce standing waves on its surface. These are called Faraday waves, first described by Michael Faraday in 1831. Faraday waves are still an active area of research today, more than...
Imagine there is an experiment setup on a train. A laser, with a specific wavelength of light, is aimed at a target. The target is at a distance from the laser of some multiple of the wavelength. Let's say 10cm for the target distance, and the light's wavelength is 1cm, so when a pulse of...
attempt:
4 waves in first wave
4.5 waves in second wave
0.5 is the difference
and so they are in anti-phase at 18 secs
180º = phase difference for 18 secs
so then after that i cant figure a way to solve it out...
I am more so stuck on where to start with this problem. I know dividing the photons per second by the area gets me the photon per area, but I am not sure how the distance is related to this part of the problem. If anyone can help, thank you.
Hi, I solved part (a) and will provide my solution below. However, I've been working on part (b) for quite a bit and reviewed the provided, relevant text a few times now but haven't been able to find what I'm missing:
Solution (a):
Using ##A = \frac{\pi \times d^{2}}{4}##, ##k =...
If you play a note of a certain frequency on a flute and simultaneously sing a note at a different frequency, then you create a third frequency that wouldn't be there if you play or sing in isolation - and the frequency of this subharmonic is the difference of the flute frequency and the voice...
My clarinet teacher once showed me a trick: you can play any note and then sing a fifth above that note and it will create the illusion of sounding an octave deeper. On a different sub, I asked about this technique:
It turns out that this is called saxophone growling. And it's no coincidence...
We know the wave function:
$$ \frac {\partial^2\psi}{\partial t^2}=\frac {\partial^2\psi}{\partial x^2}v^2,$$
where the function ##\psi(x,t)=A\ e^{i(kx-\omega t)}## satisfies the wave function and is used to describe plane waves, which can be written as:
$$ \psi(x,t)=A\ [\cos(kx-\omega...
My professor was teaching me about the superposition of two waves and after this derivation, he marked ##2Acos(\frac{dk}{2}x -\frac{d\omega}{2}t)## as the oscillation part and ##sin (Kx-\omega t)## as the oscillation part, I don't understand why? Any answers regarding this would be considered...
NANOGrav waves are real observational data, and now this: https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.08601. I don't know much in this area of research, except for the basics on LIGO and the like. Any comment from the knowledgeable members here?
There are a few articles about negative radiation pressure - in theory allowing to pull e.g. solitons: https://scholar.google.pl/scholar?q=negative+radiation+pressure
The articles suggests realization in graphene - could it work?
Could there be different realizations, like negative radiation...
I was studying for a Physics Masters Entrance Exams (India) and my coaching institute basically suggested me these books:
I actually have regretted buying books without prior research in the past, so I am making sure I do my fair share of research before buying any of these or something...
I am actually an undergraduate in Physics but I didn't understand this basic phenomenon. I saw this youtube video today and I was wondering how molecule in air would be able to regain it's initial position after it has transferred it's energy to the adjacent particle. Is it like a rebound, it...
How are we interacting with light to measure its frequency? And how'd we learn the distance between its crests and troughs? What sort of interactions are giving us such info?
May I know how is it possible for two waves to be in phase when they have different amplitude? I couldn't find any existing graphs that clearly shows how the two waves are in phase, would anyone be able to sketch it out so I can have a look. Thank you:smile:
One of the strange features of Quantum Mechanics is that for his formulation one needs the classical physics that actually should emerge as its macroscopic limit. All experiences with quantum objects have to be analyzed through classical "glasses".
Naturally, then the question arises: where...
##\mathbf {Homework ~Statement:}##
Consider the superposition of two one-dimensional harmonic waves
$$s_1(x,t)=3.5 cm \cdot cos(27.5s^{-1} \cdot t - 5.65m^{-1} \cdot x)$$
$$s_2(x,t)=3.5 cm \cdot cos(27.5s^{-1} \cdot t - 5.5m^{-1} \cdot x)$$
##\mathbf {a)}## Calculate the wavelength ##\lambda##...
Hi all,
Looking to measure some magnetic waves being generated at an electric coil. Freq is between 0-20kHz and magnitude is pretty small <1T. Any have suggestions for the best tool to measure and log data of this magnetic waveform?
Googling around, I found meters like this: [Possible spam...
I am a high school student and recently I have been working on a project about how temperature affects the frequency of a string emits. I have read blogs like https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/tension-and-frequency-with-change-in-temperature.833185/ and completed the part of thermal...
The operation of a transmission line is based on the axial propagation of electromagnetic waves between the two line conductors. However, the study of the transmission lines does not focus on E and B waves but on voltage and current waves.
It is considered that there are resistance...
I was reading this paper (*Green's functions for gravitational waves in FRW spacetimes:* [https://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9309025](https://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9309025)) and I had a specific question about one statement in the paper that I would like to ask:
At page 6, the author says that...
I am interested in any discussions about wave propagation. I authored:
Huygens' Principle geometric derivation and elimination of the wake and backward wave
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-99049-7
If we consider the coefficient b as the rings impedance, we can consider the effective impedance on the right to be b+Z2 where Z2 is the impedance of the second string. Then because there is no reflection it follows that Z1=b+Z2 or b=Z1-Z2.
Is this a valid solution? My professor went through a...
For some time I was wondering, what would happen if the Sun just disappeared like someone hit the delete button in Universal Sandbox. Specifically, what kind of gravitational waves will be produced in the wake of such an event?
Would the law of conservation of Mass-Energy be miraculously...
The solution pretends that the ship is a two point source emitter, one h above the water, and one h below the water.
The one below the water is out of phase by half a wavelength.
I don't understand why then d sin θ = λ - wouldn't it be d sin θ = (1/2)λ since it is out of phase?
Thank you.
Here is a picture of the problem:
I honestly am pretty lost, I'm not looking for an answer, more so an idea to get me started. But here is what I was thinking:
In the equation above I was trying to use:
For U I am unsure how to incorporate the weight of the blocks into the u, so I am unsure...
I've been reading many references that said "frequency" and "angular frequency" are two different things. I'm writing a report about damped oscillations experiments (that's a task from a subject in my college).
Can someone tell me which one is the resonant frequency (natural frequency)? f or ω...
I wonder if anyone could help me identify a short story I read back in the 1960s. It might have been in an old (1950s) copy of Astounding Science Fiction magazine.
I think the story involved a sea journey but the main thing I recall is that that radio wave communications was interpreted as...
Summary: Cofnusion regarding waves on a sonometer band
A tuning fork is used to determine the wave frequency of a sonometer(according to my understanding), so whay about pulse waves? Does a pulse have a wave frequency? Couldn't a pulse travel over the sonometer band that can be determined by a...
My first attempt was to work with the the difference in arrival times, but that didnt account for the focus to be under the epicenter. So I tried again in combination with the angle between the stations but have not arrived at a clear solution.
The speed of a wave in simple harmonic motion on a string is $$v= \sqrt{\frac{F}{\mu}}$$ where v= the horizontal velocity of the wave on a string.
Is the F the horizontal force or the resultant force (combination of Fy and Fx)?
In the ongoing quantum interpretations and foundations thread vanahees71 explained to me that the wave particle duality has been explained by the model where the position of a particle is calculated according to a probability distribution traveling in space.
Am I understanding this...
1) If I generate a dispersive wave, will it have well-defined constant wave number and frequency? Ones that don't change in time?
2) does the velocity of any point on the wave stay constant in time?
3) How does force interact with waves? Does a free wave act in analogy with free particles...
When we talk about sound waves in a fluid (air, water e.t.c.) we mean that the pressure ##P(x,y,z,t)## satisfies the wave equation, the so called velocity field of the fluid ##v(x,y,z,t)## satisfies the wave equation or both?
Heat diffusion is caused by randomly moving particles. So there is a connection between the diffusion equation and the statistical motion of particles. Is there something similar for waves?
Hello !
I have a doubt as to how is this case, if it occurs, of the constructive interference of two harmonic electromagnetic waves but of different wavelengths or frequencies between them.
That is, if between the two electromagnetic waves a new and unique electromagnetic wave is created and...
It's been stated that the index of refraction of materials varies with frequency throughout the EM spectrum. What are the index of refraction for various materials in the radio frequency?
If we imagine launching an electron wave in a reference frame S with speed v, should someone viewing the electron from frame S1, which is in inertial motion referring to S, use the relativistic velocity addition to calculate the speed of the electron?
So, is water for water waves, what is the vacuum for EM waves traveling in vacuum. I know the analogy can't be exactly perfect because water molecules oscillate in the presence of water waves, but in vacuum nothing seems to oscillate? Or the vacuum oscillates in some way?
And no I am not trying...
Hello !
As we know by definition that:
"Constructive interference occurs when the phase difference between the waves is an even multiple of π (180°), whereas destructive interference occurs when the difference is an odd multiple of π."
But my question is in the case of destructive...
In this paper in NASA
https://www.giss.nasa.gov/staff/mmishchenko/publications/2004_kluwer_mishchenko.pdf
it claims (at page 38) that the defined spherical waves (12.4,12.5) are solutions of Maxwell's equations in the limit ##kr\to\infty##. I tried to work out the divergence and curl of...
This is my first post so I apologize if i am in error anywhere. I recently had a thought that I have had trouble confirming. Based on the following assumptions.
1.) As you accelerate an object near the speed of light it’s mass increases exponentially.
2.) Mass warps space time.
3.) Spacetime...