# Waves Definition and 269 Discussions

The United States Naval Reserve (Women's Reserve), better known as the WAVES (for Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service), was the women's branch of the United States Naval Reserve during World War II. It was established on July 21, 1942 by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on July 30. This authorized the U.S. Navy to accept women into the Naval Reserve as commissioned officers and at the enlisted level, effective for the duration of the war plus six months. The purpose of the law was to release officers and men for sea duty and replace them with women in shore establishments. Mildred H. McAfee, on leave as president of Wellesley College, became the first director of the WAVES. She was commissioned a lieutenant commander on August 3, 1942, and later promoted to commander and then to captain.
The notion of women serving in the Navy was not widely supported in the Congress or by the Navy, even though some of the lawmakers and naval personnel did support the need for uniformed women during World War II. Public Law 689, allowing women to serve in the Navy, was due in large measure to the efforts of the Navy's Women's Advisory Council, Margaret Chung, and Eleanor Roosevelt, the First Lady of the United States.
To be eligible for officer candidate school, women had to be aged 20 to 49 and possess a college degree or have two years of college and two years of equivalent professional or business experience. Volunteers at the enlisted level had to be aged 20 to 35 and possess a high school or a business diploma, or have equivalent experience. The WAVES were primarily white, but 72 African-American women eventually served. The Navy's training of most WAVE officer candidates took place at Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts. Specialized training for officers was conducted on several college campuses and naval facilities. Most enlisted members received recruit training at Hunter College, in the Bronx, New York City. After recruit training, some women attended specialized training courses on college campuses and at naval facilities.
The WAVES served at 900 stations in the United States. The territory of Hawaii was the only overseas station where their staff was assigned. Many female officers entered fields previously held by men, such as medicine and engineering. Enlisted women served in jobs from clerical to parachute riggers. Many women experienced workplace hostility from their male counterparts. The Navy's lack of clear-cut policies, early on, was the source of many of the difficulties. The WAVES' peak strength was 86,291 members. Upon demobilization of the officer and enlisted members, Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal, Fleet Admiral Ernest King, and Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz all commended the WAVES for their contributions to the war effort.

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1. ### Why does a traveling wave pulse get distorted?

I am getting confused by this question. Nevertheless, I tried answering this question. When I see the word pulse, it brings to my mind a pulse travelling in a rope as shown in diagram below and I cannot relate dispersion to the rope medium in which pulse is travelling. What I do know is that...
2. ### Direction of of the velocity vector for particles in a sound wave

Using the equations mentioned under this question, I came up with following analysis and directions of velocities on either side of ##x_1##. Also, I'm not sure if there is an easier qualitative way to know the velocity directions rather than do a detailed Calculus based analysis?
3. ### Reflection of sound wave in an open organ pipe

I know that standing waves form in an open organ pipe. Since, standing waves can only form from superposition of original wave and reflected wave, so there must be a reflected wave in an open organ pipe. But I fail to understand how sound wave can reflect at the open end of organ pipe.
4. ### Direction of motion of points on a rope as a wave travels

The second diagram is my attempt at the solution, in which the dotted part is the pulse in the rope a very small interval of time after ##t=0##. Point A should be at rest since we know wave is moving towards right and point A on the rope becomes a part of initial horizontal part of the string a...

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6. ### Time needed for a waves to travel between the airplane and a signal tower.

I know so ## y = A sin({2*10^6 ({\pi / 3 -\pi t }) + \phi }) ## There still some unknown I cannot find, can anyone give me some hint please?
7. ### I Water Waves Over Obstacles: Higher Frequencies Grow, Not Decay

In general, it seems that higher frequencies of a wave dissipate more than lower frequencies. For sound waves, it explains why you can hear lower pitches from farther away. For a vibrating string or plate, the higher frequencies also dissipate first, with the fundamental fading last. For water...
8. ### Can someone give me a better intuition of bandwidth?

Can someone give me a better intuition of bandwidth. The way I see it, is that the bandwidth is the range of frequencies which a signal/wave is allowed to have. This doesnt feel complete though. For example, how can I explain that TDMA, FDMA and CDMA are similar in this sense. As far as I know...
9. ### I How does a standing wave form?

I understand how waves undergo superposition. However, for a standing wave, the reflected wave is a mirror opposite of the incoming wave. By the superposition principle, won’t the 2 waves add up to 0, at all points?
10. ### Waves -- How does increasing tension affect frequency and period?

Using this stimulation: https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/wave-on-a-string/latest/wave-on-a-string_en.html It looks like frequency is decreasing as I increase tension but online it says frequency increases as tension does. Also, Im unsure about what happens to the Period
11. ### Harmonic motion and waves

Solutions in a file.
12. ### Max velocity of a vibrating loud speaker membrane given sound intensity

My attempt: p and T allows us to calculate ##Z=402 \frac{kg}{sm^2}## using ## Z=p*\sqrt(\frac{\gamma*M}{R*T})## . The sound intensity level at 10 meters allows us to calculate the intensity at 10 meters to be I=10^{-7} W/m^2 using ##50 = 10*log(I/I_0)##. Then, using the formula...
13. ### The general equation of the superposition of orthogonal waves?

hi guys i was trying to derive the general formula of two orthogonal waves $$x^{2}-2xycos(δ)+y^{2} = A^{2} sin(δ)^{2}$$ where the two waves are given by : $$x = Acos(ωt)$$ $$y = Acos(ωt+δ)$$ where ##δ## is the different in phase , i know it seems trivial but i am stuck on where should i begin...
14. ### Reflection of inverted waves to form a standing wave

Standing waves in a string fixed at one end is formed by incoming and reflected waves. If reflected waves are 180° out of phase with incoming wave, how could they combine to give an oscillating wave? Shouldn't it be completely destructive interference all the time across the whole length of string?
15. ### Contradiction in Phase of reflected sound

While studying the fundamentals of sound waves in organ pipe, I noted that the fact about phase of reflected waves is contradicting while referring multiple sources This book of mine describes the reflection from a rigid surface/closed end to be in phase Whereas this one describes the...

30. ### Question about wave interference and coherence

I have encountered the following definition of interference: Interference is a wave phenomenon in which two or more waves from coherent sources meet and superpose to form a resultant wave such that the amplitude of the resultant wave at any point is the vector sum of the amplitudes of the...
31. ### Find the Total Energy of the String

Steps that I've taken: First, compute the derivative of the psi-function with respect to time and then take the square of the result Second, input the result into the KE integration formula. All that is left is to find the integrand, however this is where calculations became really "messy". It...
32. ### I Visualization of fields in waveguides

Can someone provide me intuitive visualization of how E or H field can be longitudinal in a waveguide (TM/TE)? TEM is easy to visualize, but how EM wave can behave like sound in a waveguide (constant phase and amplitude plane in the same direction)? [Moderator: large bold font removed. In the...
33. ### I How do waves following a shockwave catch up to the shock wave?

I was in an argument about a jet engine and I was arguing that since there is a cutoff in terminology what would kill someone approaching a engine is not technically sound, but a shock wave, (I'm probably wrong about this, but that's not the question). That got me wondering how waves can catch...
34. ### Simulating forward electromagnetic scattering for a dielectric

I want to simulate 2D TM scattered fields (microwave range) for austria profile. Austria profile has 2 circles beside each other of certain dielectric and one ring below the circles. So basically I have three dielectric objects in the domain of interest and also positions of Tx and Rx are known...
35. ### How to find the frequency of the second wave?

I don’t understand how to approach this. So I couldn’t make an attempt at a solution. Please help me understand better. Thank you in advance.
36. ### Seemingly simple Physics 2 wave question (third harmonic frequency)

I cannot find the correct answer anywhere online and the answer I keep getting is 5.4 (incorrect) Please show me the process to get to the answer! Thank you
37. ### Normal mode of an infinite spring pendulum system

First I worked out the dispersion relations, which is pretty easy: ##M \ddot x_j = K x_{j-1} + K x_{j+1} - 2K x_j -mg \frac {x_j} {l} ## (All t-derivatives) We know ##x_j## will be in the form ##Ae^{ijka}e^{-i\omega t}## so the above becomes: ## -\omega^2M = K (e^{-ika}+e^{ika}-2)-\frac {g}...
38. ### Electricity: Is it a longitudinal wave?

I am a high school teacher and we were discussing waves and electricity in class today. One of my students asked me if electricity is a longitudinal wave or not and I had no idea how to answer. So, I realize that electric fields are what drive electrons to move through conducting wires, but...
39. ### How can I find the width of the central diffraction maximum.

If I am given the width of the slit (b), wavelength of the light (λ), and the distance of the slit from the screen (D), how can I find the width of the central maximum (d)? My book says d/2=Dλ/b, but with no explanation and I don't understand why. Where does this formula come from? Thank you...
40. ### Oscillation of a driven RLC network

We know that the charge on capacitors as a function of time takes the general form of: ##Q(x,t)=qe^{ijka}e^{-i\omega t}## The voltage at each capacitor: ##V_j = \frac 1 C (Q_j-Q_{i+1})## From KVL we have differential equation of t-derivatives: ##LQ'' + RQ' = V_{j-1} - V_{j}## ##LQ''+RQ'= \frac...
41. ### Force and power applied to create a traveling wave

Again I am really confused, but I just put the travelling wave as: ##\psi(x,t) = Dcos(kx- \omega t)## for positive x ##\psi(x,t) = Dcos(kx+ \omega t)## for positive x Then I simply differentiated and plugged in ##x=0## ##F(t) = - T D k sin(\omega t)## and from this ## \langle P \rangle = T D^2...
42. ### I Viewing the wave properties of a macroscopic object

My textbook explained that it would be hard to see the wavelength properties of a tennis ball because we would have to find a very tiny slit in which to pass the tennis ball through. The wavelength of the tennis ball can be calculated using debroglie formula: wavelength = h/p I was wondering if...
43. ### 3rd harmonic of a column of air with one end enclosed

Homework Statement https://imgur.com/lGas78X The solution to this question says 450Hz. However, when I attempted to compute the frequency using the wave equation and find the normal mode solutions, I get 750Hz 2. Homework Equations I suspect that the solution could be wrong, is that the...
44. ### In what direction does a light wave vibrate?

I've wondered this for a while but not known how to ask the question, If light is a transverse wave, then what is it transverse to? To elaborate, light travels in three-dimensions, radially. To me, this seems analogous to the sound wave, with pulses of pressure moving longitudinally to the...
45. ### Melde's Experiment

Homework Statement Why working formula for transverse and longitudinal arrangement in melde experiment different in Melde's experiment ? Homework Equations None. The corresponding equations are all derived from the same fact. The Attempt at a Solution So, I have understood that the tuning...
46. ### Beginning through the Pedrotti optics book -- I have an energy question

Hello. I started to work on pedrotti optics book (2nd edition) and i got confused about what is relativistic mass and why we use it rather than kinetic energy (1/2mc^2)? Also in the beginning of these explanations there is one equation i barely understand nothing out of it. Could you please...
47. ### N-oscillator system with two sides attached

Homework Statement The system is shown in the image. In the beaded string shown in Figure 1, the interval between neighboring beads is a, and the distance from the end beads to the wall is a/2. All the beads have mass m and are constrained to move only vertically in the plane of the paper...
48. ### Fizeau's Experiment (Speed of light)

Homework Statement In the Fizeau's Experiment to determine the speed of light, let the gear have N teeth, the frequency of the rotating gear being f, the distance travelled by the light beam/ray L (distance b/w the gear and the mirror) and let there be n eclipses(blocking of the light beam)...
49. ### Describing the Motion of a String at the Antinodes

Homework Statement How would you describe the motion of a string at two adjacent antinodes? Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution So would the antinodes not be moving since it's a standing wave? Or would they be moving in phase because they are propagating together?
50. ### I Gravitational wave detection

Hi, a simple question related to the gravitational wave detection. The net effect of gravitational wave is basically the stretching of the space including all the measurements tools (meter sticks just to illustrate the concept) that could be used to detect it. I am aware of laser...