# Soft X-Rays: Causes & Energy Rates

• Entanglement
In summary, soft x-rays have less energy than hard x-rays. The traditional method for making x-rays was to accelerate electrons through a fixed potential - call it V - so that every electron has the same energy; about eV in this case. Hard x-rays are more penetrating. Bremsstrahlung radiation is a cascade of low-energy photons that result from the interaction of an electron with matter.
Entanglement
what is the reason of soft x-rays, Is it because when a accelerated electron approaches an atom the electrons' electric field repel the incoming electron causing deceleration and also i scattering could be a reason when the electron approaches the nucleus, is that correct?
what is the relation of the number and energy of photons emitted to the rate of its deceleration, how can it be calculated? Big to PF, and thanks in advance!

"Soft x-rays" have less energy than "hard x-rays". The traditional method for making x-rays was to accelerate electrons through a fixed potential - call it V - so that every electron has the same energy; about eV in this case.

Then collide the electrons with a thin metal film. If the electron energy is sufficient, then the "characteristic x-rays" for that metal will be emitted.

"Hard" x-rays are more penetrating.

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_generator

UltrafastPED said:
"Soft x-rays" have less energy than "hard x-rays". The traditional method for making x-rays was to accelerate electrons through a fixed potential - call it V - so that every electron has the same energy; about eV in this case.
Then collide the electrons with a thin metal film. If the electron energy is sufficient, then the "characteristic x-rays" for that metal will be emitted.
"Hard" x-rays are more penetrating.
See [PLAIN]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_generatorsf[/PLAIN]

Last edited by a moderator:
UltrafastPED said:
"Soft x-rays" have less energy than "hard x-rays". The traditional method for making x-rays was to accelerate electrons through a fixed potential - call it V - so that every electron has the same energy; about eV in this case.
Then collide the electrons with a thin metal film. If the electron energy is sufficient, then the "characteristic x-rays" for that metal will be emitted.
"Hard" x-rays are more penetrating.
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_generator
Thanks a lot for your answer, but I don't think you understood my question correctly

ElmorshedyDr said:
Thanks a lot for your answer, but I don't think you understood my question correctly

Maybe can work you some question so it clearer be.

Yeah, clearer question would help.

Soft x-rays are typically generated at synchrotrons and wiggling the electron beam using an undulator.

I mean I know that when an electron falls from a higher level it emits a photon of energy hv,
What is the equivalence of that for decelerating electrons, what governs the number of photons and the energy of each photon??

The undulator produces a magnetic field that acts on the electron beam (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Undulator).

A magnetic field has a potential energy similar to a (quantum) harmonic oscillator along one axis (Introductory Quantum Mechanics, Liboff 4th editon).

I'm guessing the transitions are harmonic oscillator type transitions, with higher energy and lower energy states available.

ElmorshedyDr said:
..... what governs the number of photons and the energy of each photon??

The maximum energy of the produced X-ray photon is limited by the energy of the incident electron, which is equal to the voltage on the tube times the electron charge, so an 80 kV tube cannot create X-rays with an energy greater than 80 keV

Dave

For braking radiation, conservation of energy tells us that the total energy released as photons cannot exceed the total energy of the initial source.

An x-ray passing through matter will have multiple interactions, all electromagnetic, knocking off electrons as it goes. These electrons will in turn generate additional photons - a chain reaction - but with ever lower energies in the photons, and in the electrons.

For some calculations see http://www.astro.utu.fi/~cflynn/astroII/l3.html
and http://whs.wsd.wednet.edu/faculty/b...onphysics/lecturenotes/chapter7/chapter7.html

its so much fun being ignored

1 person
davenn said:
its so much fun being ignored

It's my favorite activity!

1 person
Thanks guys I got it.

davenn said:
its so much fun being ignored
What do you mean?

ElmorshedyDr said:
What do you mean?

That was for me, so you can just ignore it.

## 1. What are soft X-rays and how are they different from other types of X-rays?

Soft X-rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation with higher energy and shorter wavelengths than visible light. They are different from other X-rays because they have lower energy and are able to penetrate through soft tissue, making them useful for medical imaging.

## 2. What causes soft X-rays to be produced?

Soft X-rays are produced when high-speed electrons are suddenly decelerated by a metal target, causing them to emit energy in the form of X-rays.

## 3. What are the energy rates of soft X-rays?

The energy rates of soft X-rays can vary depending on the source and the specific wavelength being emitted. Generally, soft X-rays have energy rates between 100 electron volts (eV) to 1 kiloelectron volt (keV).

## 4. What are the main applications of soft X-rays?

Soft X-rays have a wide range of applications, including medical imaging, materials analysis, and industrial imaging. They are also used in X-ray lithography for creating microchips and in X-ray crystallography for studying the structure of molecules.

## 5. What are the potential health hazards associated with exposure to soft X-rays?

Exposure to soft X-rays can be harmful to living organisms as they have enough energy to ionize atoms and damage DNA. However, the risk of harm is low in medical imaging and other controlled settings as the exposure time and dosage are carefully monitored and limited.

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