# Solar Panels and Solar Radiation Flux Density Help - Very Confused

• AN630078
In summary: the calculated value of the solar radiation flux density in part c b is an underestimate", the student really isn't expected to do much (or anything, really) in the way of independent research in order to answer the problem.
AN630078 said:
Thank you very much for your reply and for your advice, I admit I will probably use your statement. It is a question my physics tutor sent to me in a quantum physics revision package of questions, but I had not come across a homogenous problem to this before, at least not within the context. If you like, once I have feeback from them I can inform you of the angle demanded by the question. Thank you again
You are welcome. Yes, it would be interesting to learn what the intended angle actually is!

AN630078

## 1. What are solar panels and how do they work?

Solar panels are devices made up of photovoltaic cells that convert sunlight into electricity. The cells are made of silicon and other materials that create an electric field when exposed to sunlight. When light particles (photons) from the sun hit the cells, they knock electrons loose from the atoms, generating an electric current.

## 2. How much solar radiation flux density is needed for solar panels to work?

The amount of solar radiation flux density, or the amount of sunlight, needed for solar panels to work depends on various factors such as the type of solar panel, location, and weather conditions. Generally, a minimum of 1000 watts per square meter of solar radiation is needed for efficient functioning of solar panels.

## 3. What is the difference between direct and diffuse solar radiation flux density?

Direct solar radiation flux density refers to the sunlight that reaches the Earth's surface without being scattered or reflected. This type of radiation is strongest on clear, sunny days. On the other hand, diffuse solar radiation flux density is sunlight that has been scattered or reflected by particles in the atmosphere. This type of radiation is present on cloudy or overcast days.

## 4. How do I calculate the solar radiation flux density at a specific location?

The solar radiation flux density at a specific location can be calculated using the solar radiation data available for that location. This data includes the average daily solar radiation, which can be obtained from various sources such as the National Solar Radiation Database. The calculation involves using the average daily solar radiation and the latitude and longitude of the location to determine the solar radiation flux density.

## 5. Can solar panels work without direct sunlight?

Yes, solar panels can still work without direct sunlight. While direct sunlight is ideal for maximum efficiency, solar panels can still generate electricity on cloudy or overcast days. This is because solar panels can still absorb the diffuse solar radiation present in the atmosphere. However, the electricity production may be lower compared to clear, sunny days.

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