# What is Confused: Definition and 1000 Discussions

In medicine, confusion is the quality or state of being bewildered or unclear. The term "acute mental confusion" is often used interchangeably with delirium in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and the Medical Subject Headings publications to describe the pathology. These refer to the loss of orientation, or the ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location and personal identity. Mental confusion is sometimes accompanied by disordered consciousness (the loss of linear thinking) and memory loss (the inability to correctly recall previous events or learn new material). The term is from Latin: confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together", "to mingle together", "to confuse".

View More On Wikipedia.org
1. ### Biology Confused about pursuing PhD (Indian Scenario) -- Help please

Hii, I am of +26 years old. I am confused whether I should pursue PhD in India or look for research jobs. I like to read but I am not meticulous smart, I get confused easily and things doesn't make sense to me easily until I put my extra efforts. Kindly help me to choose a career trajectory. I...
2. ### B A contradiction of the equivalence principle?

hi, I am a physics student in grade eleven. I do not have much knowledge of physics but I have a doubt: apart from the maths and the experiments, shouldn't larger masses be attracted to Earth's gravity rather than be attracted the same regardless of mass? if we had a scenario where we have...
3. ### B Integration by Parts, an introduction I get confused with

Hi, PF Integration by parts is pointed out this way: Suppose that ##U(x)## and ##V(x)## are two differentiable functions. According to the Product Rule, $$\displaystyle\frac{d}{dx}\big(U(x)V(x)\big)=U(x)\displaystyle\frac{dV}{dx}+V(x)\displaystyle\frac{dU}{dx}$$ Integrating both sides of...
4. ### A Confused about reflected signal in a bow-tie optical cavity

Hello! I am building a bow-tie optical cavity, of finesse about 10,000. When I measure the transmitted signal out of the cavity, after aligning it, I see clear peaks, significantly higher than the background and pretty much single mode. I do see 2 other peaks, probably from other modes, but much...
5. ### I Confused about using Monte Carlo for error estimation

Hello! I have 2 probabilities ##p_1## and ##p_2## which governs the probability of measuring some events. I measure event 1 N times and get ##N_1## counts and event 2 N times and get ##N_2## counts. Then I need to build the function ##A = \frac{N_1-N_2}{N_1+N_2}##. I am trying to estimate the...
6. ### A Confused about magnitude of error

Hello! I am trying to simulate the following experiment. It is a counting experiment where the probability of getting an event after a given trial is given by: $$P = 2\left(\frac{a}{x}+\frac{b}{c}\right)^2\left(1-\cos\left(\frac{\pi x}{x_0}\right)\right)$$ where, ##a = 4\pi##, ##b = 2000\pi##...
7. ### Confused about significant figures in official solutions

I keep running into the issue of getting a different number of significant figures in my solutions than the official answers at the back of the book, so I'm wondering if I'm missing something or if the book is occasionally sloppy about significant figures. In Unit 1, the book states (p.8.)...
8. ### Rocket acceleration problem: confused about Newton's 2nd Law

TL;DR Summary: I approach a rocket acceleration problem using two approaches: F=d(m*v)/dt and F=ma. The resulting differential equations are different. What am I doing wrong? We have a ship with a mass-reaction rocket engine floating in space. The initial mass of the ship (including fuel) is...
9. ### A Confused about population transfer

Hello! I have a 2 level system given by: \begin{pmatrix} 0 & A \\ A & Bcos(\omega t) \end{pmatrix} If I populate only one of the states initially, at ##t=0## the 2 states are B apart, while after half a period they are -B apart. Basically the system went from one side of the avoided crossing...
10. ### Confused about quantum tunneling through 200V not eV

I have the equations to calculate transmission probability, my problem is that the barrier is given in Volts not electron volts. $$200V = e \cdot 200 eV = 3.2 \cdot 10^{-17} eV$$ I am not even sure if that's a correct conversion. But if it is then this "barrier" is extremly small and 99.999%...
11. ### Confused about Continuous Endpoints: -1 < a < 1?

For this problem, I don't understand why they are saying ##-1 < a < 1## since they are trying to find where ##f(x)## is continuous including the endpoints ##f(-1)## and ##f(1)## Why is it not: ##-1 ≤ a ≤1## Many thanks!
12. ### I Doppler Effect on Light: Constant Speed of Light Confusion

If the speed of light in the vacuum of empty space is the same for all observers, how can there be a Doppler effect on light? Doesn't the shift of color/frequency indicate a change in speed? Sorry if I posted with the wrong prefix, I'm just a curious senior (as in old guy) :oldconfused:
13. ### I Does Special Relativity Change Our Perception of Others?

Hi all, I'm a bit nervous about the implications of relativity, not the block universe stuff I can work with that.. What worries me regards planes of simultaneity, when I'm walking away from you my plane of simultaneity will contain you from your past, so the you in my reference frame...
14. ### Confused about polar integrals and setting up bounds

So I want to subtract the two surfaces, right? I really don't know where to start... I am guessing this would be some sort of triple integral, however I am very confused with the bounds. Any help would be greatly appreciated! Thanks!!
15. ### Physics I am confused (which stream to choose for research?)

Hello, I've bin the mid of my Msc in physics preparing for gate/ net exam 2023. I don't know which stream to choose for research. I am highly highly interested in solar energy, green energy and mechanical engineering as well but I don't know what to do as I am not an engeenering student. I...
16. ### Confused About Mass? Let's Find Out!

I'm not sure where to start, I feel like I'm missing the mass but it is not listed.
17. ### I I'm confused on which equation gives percentage uncertainty

im confused about the difference of this equation: and this one: which gives percentage uncertainty, so which one should be used to calculate the uncertainty?
18. ### So confused by these multi-step questions, free fall related:

Tried making many squiggles, I don't understand the concept of finding a distance or position based on a time for part of the flight. I have 2 other similar questions and I haven't been able to make any progress on any of them. I attached a photo of my scribbles, which are all obviously...
19. ### Confused by the contents listed on this soup can

Background. Trying to lose weight via a clamp down on carbs so I decided to try sachet soup for lunch at work. mostly water, not many calories. Examining the contents some of the wording is confusing. Total Contents 81g = 4 sachets so 4 "meals" I weighed one and it was approximately 20g so...
20. ### Why does the DNA codon ACG code for threonine in the RNA codon table?

I refer to the tables on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_and_RNA_codon_tables In both the DNA and the RNA codon tables, ACG codes for threonine. But the transcription of the ACG from the DNA to the mRNA ends up with UGC (which would code for Cysteine). So should I assume that when the DNA...
21. ### I Confused by this armillary sphere in Australia

I presume that the sphere is pointing at the declination of -90, and that the descriptions "torrid" & "temperate" correspond to tropic & non-tropic, respectively; as such, it seems that these descriptions are on the wrong sides...
22. ### I am a little confused by the quoted text is worth mentioning.

Hi I am reading a book and I am confused why some text is mentioned. Could someone help explain. https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/david-morin/files/relativity_chap_1.pdf page 14 " There is always a difference between the time that an event happens and the time that someone sees the event...
23. ### I want to study physics and related maths, but I am confused....

here is what i wish to say. basically i am a 23 year old guy who has wasted a lot of time not finishing any course i started and also occasionally trying to be a musician but also did not fully get into that. There were times since completing high school that I found myself very intersted in...
24. ### A Confused by a theorem in Milnor-Stasheff

The k-th Pontrjagin class of a real vector bundle is defined as the 2k-Chern class of the complexified bundle. Therefor, a Pontrjagin class lives in cohomology with integer coefficients. But then the statement of Theorem 15.9 is that if the coefficient ring is taken to be a PID \Lambda...

26. ### Confused about applying the Right Hand Rule (RHR)

the answer is attractive. but i don't see how this is how I draw mine and I use the RHR on the magnetic field between the two wire and I got the force is opposite
27. ### I Confused about dot product of a and b = |a||b| if theta = 0

I am not sure what I am doing wrong but dot product of a and b =/= |a||b| when I am trying to calculate it. Theta = 0: dot product(a and b) = ax*bx + ay*by |a||b|= sqrt((ax^2+ay^2)*(ax^2 + by^2)) = sqrt((ax*bx)^2 + (ax*by)^2 + (ay*bx)^2 + (ay*by)^2) =/= ax*bx + ay*by What am I doing wrong?
28. ### I Confused about N*sin(theta) = (m*v^2)/r in banked curve

If there is a car resting on a banked curve with angle theta, velocity v = 0, but N (normal)*sin(theta) > 0. So N*sin(theta) =/= (m*v^2)/r with v = 0. But my physics textbook just defined N*sin(theta) = (m*v^2)/r in banked curve. What is going on here?
29. ### Chemistry Confused with Galvanic Cell concept

I was watching this video that I found on Youtube. My question is, does type of electrolyte affect the voltage reading, since it dictates which redox reactions are possible? (here, Na2SO4 instread of CuSO4) Consider a Mg|Cu electrode pair in a galvanic cell; the reaction is, usually in...
30. ### Deriving Wave Function: Confused about (ix/a) & (-x^2/2a)?

It is asking to derive the time-independent wave function and has managed to get the answer of and i am very confused as where (ix/a) and (-x^2/2a) came from ? Thanks.
31. ### "Dormant" virus, chicken pox, Shingles, vaccination - confused

I tried a web search but how this immunity stuff works with chicken pox, shingles, and the vaccination I cannot understand. Person can suffer chicken pox infection from the virus, recover, and later be vaccinated (at least age 50) with Shingrix vaccination, to be protected. But the virus is...
32. ### Confused about recursion in python-depth first search-:

# Python dictionary to act as an adjacency list graph = { '7' : ['19','21', '14'], '19': ['1', '12', '31'], '21': [], '14': ['23', '6'], '1' : [], '12': [], '31': [], '23': [], '6' : [] } visited = [] # List of visited nodes of graph. def dfs(visited, graph, node): if...
33. ### Comp Sci Confused about DFS algorithm in action (not an issue with the pseudocode)

The DFS in action doesn't relate to the pseudocode as you can see it. My confusion starts from dfs in action, step 4. I could write essay about it, but you can see it yourself as well and spot that algorithm and dfs in action doesn't match up properly. or is it only me? This is not a homework...
34. ### Confused about the nature of Laplace vs Poisson equation in BVP

Hi! The problem clearly states that there is a surface charge density, which somehow gives rise to a potential. The author has solved the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates and applied the equation to the problem. So ##\nabla^2 V(r,\phi) = 0##, and ##V(a,\phi) = V_a(\phi)## (where...
35. ### B Confused about force body diagram for 2 body collision

I'm trying to understand Newton's third law in the context of collisions. Assume that one body has mass M kg and is traveling in the positive x direction with acceleration A m/s^2. Assume that the second body has mass m kg and is traveling in the negative x direction with acceleration a m/s^2...
36. ### I am confused by the concept of space-time in special relativity

I am confused by the concept of space-time in special relativity, I have 3 spatial dimensions and 1 time dimensions. In Newtonian physics don't I also have 3 spatial dimensions and 1 time dimension? Then why call it space time in special relativity and not in Newtonian physics?
37. ### Confused About Boundary Conditions for ##y## and ##x##

I am going through this notes, i can follow quite well...my only issue is on the highlighted part...i thought that we had two boundary conditions for ##y## ( of which one of them is non homogenous) and two boundary conditions for ##x##( of which both are homogenous)...kindly clarify on this part...
38. ### Python - Confused in list comprehension

I want to find difference between two list. I came across sth called list comprehension. I can't tell you how confused I am with this. # Python 3 code to demonstrate # to remove elements present in other list # using list comprehension # initializing list1 list1 = [1, 3, 4, 6, 7] #...
39. ### I Confused about the axis of rotation in rotational motion w/o slipping

I'm now learning about rotational motion without slipping and it's really hurting my brain to think about. Imagine a cylinder rotating on a flat plane. I can accept that there is both translational and rotational motion. For example, a given point on the circumference of the cylinder follows a...
40. ### Confused about calculating the average energy from a distribution graph

Hello, in one of tasks of my liquid scintillation lab is to determine the average energy. You can see from the graph that data I obtained is similar to this one that I have a excel sheet data. X-axis is for beta particle energy from 0-156keV while y-axis counts of the particles. So according to...
41. ### Pynative while loop tutorial -- confused

Summary:: confused in program. Write a while loop to display each character from a string and if a character is a space, then don’t display it and move to the next character. Use the if condition with the continue statement to jump to the next iteration. If the current character is space...
42. ### Confused in name binding in python

(I Didn't use code formatting here as I felt it was not necessary) I have read multiple textbooks, articles and watched multiple videos about name binding in python. Till now what I understand can be summarized in this-: x=1 means name x is binded to object "1" z=x and we know x=1 => z=1 so...
43. ### Confused about name binding in python

(I Didn't use code formatting here as I felt it was not necessary) I have read multiple textbooks, articles and watched multiple videos about name binding in python. Till now what I understand can be summarized in this-: x=1 means name x is binded to object "1" z=x and we know x=1 => z=1 so...
44. ### B Confused about time dilation and cosmic speed limit

[Moderator's note: Thread spun off from previous thread due to topic/forum change.] Time dilation sounds really weird, can i assume it has a logical explanation?

46. ### Confused about which forces are external when Newton's Second Law is used

So I have a trolley of mass m that moves on a straight line. A sphere of mass m, is attached on the trolley with a light string of length a and it is left to oscillate. Just to give some idea of their positions: r_trolley = xi r_sphere = (x-asinθ)i - acosθj (θ is the angle between the string...
47. ### I Confused about declination, elevation & altitude

They seem to be similar terms, although elevation & altitude seem to be the exact same thing. AIUI, the declination of astronomical object refers to the latitude on Earth where it is at the celestial zenith - i.e., straight up, along the line from the Earth's center and surface at such zenith...
48. ### Confused while reading HRK regarding rotational kinematics

Pic 1: Pic 2:
49. ### Sketch the function by hand -- I'm confused on how to do this

Sketch by hand the function determined as f(x) = 1/28 (7√−16x^2 + 16x + 5 + 12) and then From the sketch, determine the domain and range of f in interval notation. Hint: Interpret f as part of a circle. You must include in your solutions the inputs and outputs you used to help you sketch the...