Book: Maggiore-A modern Introduction to QFT(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

Section:11.1

He says that if a symmetry transformation multiplies the vacuum state by a constant phase factor only, the symmetry is not broken..

Section:11.2

U(1) symmetry is spontaneously broken....multiplication by exp(i theta) takes the vacuum state to another state on the circle of minima..

But isnt this multiplication by a phase factor? How can you reconcile this with the statement in the previous section?

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# Spontaneous Symmetry breaking,phase factor

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