For an infinite system of coupled oscillators of identical mass and spring constant k. The matrix equation of motion is \ddot{X}=M^{-1}KX
The eigenvectors of the solutions are those of the translation operator (since the translation operator and M^{-1}K commute). My question is, for the...
I am trying to get a foothold on QFT using several books (Lancaster & Blundell, Klauber, Schwichtenberg, Jeevanjee), but sometimes have trouble seeing the forest for all the trees. My problem concerns the equation of QED in the form
$$
\mathcal{L}_{Dirac+Proca+int} =
\bar{\Psi} ( i \gamma_{\mu}...
Untill now i have only been able to derive the equations of motion for this lagrangian when the field $$\phi$$ in the Euler-Lagrange equation is the covariant field $$A_{\nu}$$, which came out to be :
$$-M^2A^{\nu} = \partial^{\mu}\partial_{\mu}A^{\nu}$$
I have seen examples based on the...
I'm a bit confused about the condition given in the description of the symmetry transformation of the filed. Usually, given any symmetry transformation ##x^\mu \mapsto \bar{x}^\mu##, we require
$$\bar\phi (\bar x) = \phi(x),$$
i.e. we want the transformed field at the transformed coordinates to...
As we all know, for the reference frame S' and S of relative motion, according to Lorentz transformation, we can get
As we all know, for the reference frame S' and S of relative motion, according to Lorentz transformation, we can get
As we all know, for the reference frame S' and S of relative...
A standard example consider a capacitor whose parallel plates have a circular shape, of radius R, so that the system has a cylindrical symmetry.
The magnetic field at a given distance r from the common axis of the plates is calculated via Ampere's law:
\oint_\gamma {\mathbf B} \cdot d{\mathbf...
A sketch of the setup and the equivalent circuit are attached.
I believe the correct way to solve this is to redraw the circuit as shown in Fig. 3 and then remove the connections between evidently equipotential points, which reduces the problem to a familiar setup of in parallel and in series...
I've bumped into a few interesting papers talking about time-reversal symmetry in QM (eg: https://arxiv.org/abs/1507.07745) but I can't seem to wrap my head around the concept.
1) What does it mean for one to say that standard QM isn't time-reversal symmetric? Does this have to do with the...
I am currently studying this paper on quantum synchronization. The first page gives an introduction to synchronization and the basic setup of the ensembles in the cavity. My query is on the second page where the following statements are made.
Can anyone see why the implication is that all...
Suppose we are in communication with aliens who live in a different universe. I know, that's impossible, communication requires the exchange of mass or energy, which implies that we live in the same universe. But suppose it is true. I am wondering, can we and the aliens, via this communication...
Wald and Zoupas discussed the general definition of ``conserved quantities" in a diffeomorphism invariant theory in this work. In Section IV, they gave one expression (33) in the linked article. I cannot really understand the logic of this expression. Would you please help me with this?
This is not a technical question. I'd like to have a more conceptual discussion about what - if anything - gauge invariance tells us about reality. If we could, please try to keep the discussion at the level of undergrad or beginning grad.
To focus my questions and keep things elementary, I'd...
How is symmetry used to solve electrical circuits? I have seen several problems in books in which currents in two resistors are said to be equal due to 'symmetry'. That is a concept that I fail to understand and thus cannot apply. In class, we were shown a few circuit diagrams which were...
In the recent thread about the gravitational field of an infinite flat wall PeterDonis posted (indirectly) a link to a mathpages analysis of the scenario. That page (http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath530/kmath530.htm) produces an ansatz for the metric as follows (I had to re-type the LaTeX -...
I am exploring Gaussian integers in terms of roots, powers, primes, and composites. I understand that multiplying two integers with norm 5 result in an integer with norm 25. I get the impression that there are twelve unique integers with norm 25, and they come in two flavors:
(1) Four of them...
Hello guys!
I have to solve a problem about crystal symmetry, but I am very lost, so I wonder if anyone could guide me.
The problem is the following:
Using semiclassical transport theory the conductivity tensor can be defined as:
σ(k)=e^2·t·v_a(k)·v_b(k)
Where e is the electron charge, t...
Hello everyone :)
Not too long ago, I was thinking about planetary motion around a sun, both with circular orbits and elliptic orbits. However, when thinking a little longer about these two cases in a broader sense, I spotted a big difference which I found quite odd (assume purely classical...
Hello
Can somebody explain for me what is the meaning of inversion symmetry in solids?
and why does it breaks at the surface?
and also why this inversion symmetry breaking leads to SOC(spin orbit coupling)?
If somebody also know a document that explain this in full details(from A to Z) please...
Does there exist a binary fractal tree…
(reference: http://ecademy.agnesscott.edu/~lriddle/ifs/pythagorean/symbinarytree.htm )
…whose leaves (endpoints) lie on a circle and are equidistant?
Consider a binary fractal tree with branches decreasing in length by a scaling factor r (0 < r < 1) for...
In one General Relativity paper, the author states the following (we can assume tensor in question are tensors in a vector space ##V##, i.e., they are elements of some tensor power of ##V##)
To discuss general properties of tensor symmetries, we shall use the representation theory of the...
Homework Statement
Consider the contractions of the 3D Euclidean symmetry while preserving the SO(2) subgroup. In the physics point of view, explain the resulting symmetries G(2) (Galilean symmetry group) and H(3) (Heisenberg-Weyl group for quantum mechanics) and give their Lie algebras...
Homework Statement
A current I flows along the surface of a hollow conducting cylinder. The radius of the cylinder section is r.
By using Ampere's law, show that the magnetic field B outside the cylinder is
B=\frac{\mu_0}{2 \pi} \frac{I}{r}
Homework Equations
Ampere's law...
We often use SO(N) and SU(N) to describe symmetries in particle physics. I am not clear which one to choose when I try to discuss a symmetry. For example, why do we use SU(3) but not SO(3) to describe the symmetry of the three colors of quarks? Similarly, why do we use SU(2) but not SO(2) to...
Hi, I have a matrix which gives the same determinant wether it is transposed or not, however, its eigenvalues have complex roots, and there are complex numbers in the matrix elements. Can this matrix be classified as non-Hermitian?
If so, is there any other name to classify it, as it is not...
Breaking of a local symmetry is impossible. It is often said that therefore the role of the Higgs mechanism in the standard model is a different one.
Namely,
Once a gauge is fixed, however, to remove the redundant degrees of freedom, the remaining (discrete!) global symmetry may undergo...
String theorists have apparently applied String Theory to expose a Quantum Anomaly in a physical analog system: electrons flowing in a Niobium Phosphide crystal. The electrons were found to violate symmetry in relation to Spin...
I just started to develop an interest in symmetries after taking an introductory course in electromagnetism . The instructor explained to us how physical laws can be obtained by considering the symmetries of the physical system. It was really amazing how we can obtain such information just by...
Homework Statement
"Find the direction and the variables which the electrostatic field depends on at all points of the plane (xOy) uniformly charged with the density of positive charges ϱ"
The Attempt at a Solution
So first of all, I have to study the Invariances of symmetry. I tried to...