# Thermodynamics (Closed System) questions

• Zero-shift
In summary, a closed system in thermodynamics does not allow for the transfer of mass, but allows for the exchange of energy with the surroundings. The first law of thermodynamics for a closed system states that the change in internal energy is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system. Heat and work are both forms of energy that can be exchanged in a closed system, with heat being the transfer of energy due to a temperature difference and work being the transfer of energy due to a force acting through a distance. The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of a closed system and its surroundings will always increase, leading to a state of maximum entropy. An example of a closed system in everyday life is a

#### Zero-shift

If I have a closed system where mass is conserved, what constraint will this bring on the system in terms of infinitesimal quantities. What conclusions can I then draw about the phases at this kind of equilibrium? Suppose we had an isovolumic, isothermal change, how would I have to alter my argument?

What are your thoughts on this?

## 1. What is a closed system in thermodynamics?

A closed system in thermodynamics refers to a system in which no mass can enter or leave, but energy can be exchanged with the surroundings. This means that the total energy of the system remains constant.

## 2. What is the first law of thermodynamics for a closed system?

The first law of thermodynamics states that the change in internal energy of a closed system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system. This can be expressed as ΔU = Q - W.

## 3. What is the difference between heat and work in a closed system?

Heat and work are both forms of energy that can be exchanged with a closed system. Heat is the transfer of energy due to a temperature difference, while work is the transfer of energy due to a force acting through a distance.

## 4. How is the second law of thermodynamics applied to closed systems?

The second law of thermodynamics states that in a closed system, the total entropy (measure of disorder) of the system and its surroundings will always increase. This means that for a closed system, processes will naturally tend towards a state of maximum entropy.

## 5. What is an example of a closed system in everyday life?

An example of a closed system in everyday life is a sealed jar of pickles. No mass can enter or leave the jar, but energy can be exchanged in the form of heat. The pickles and brine inside the jar would be considered the closed system, while the air and other surroundings outside the jar would be the surroundings.