In batteries, what exactly do we mean by negative and positive charges? My understanding is that the negative charge of the anode is basically an atom with an extra electron in the last orbital that it would need to lose to reach a more stable state. and a minus electron in the last orbit of the positively charged atoms in the cathode that it needs to get? and so the electrons keep flowing and interchanging cuz the atom is trying to reach a stable state. Is this correct or am I messing things up? and if my understanding of positively/negatively charged atoms is correct, What do we mean by saying that the electron in itself has a - charge? What about capacitors? What are the charges on capacitors side? I don't mean whether they're negative or positive charges. I'm more confused about the nature of these charges. what exactly is a charge?