I have some trouble grasping voltage, and why it is defined by V = R * I. 1. If voltage can be seen as some form of electrical potential energy, why does it not increase as the circuit is made longer (in terms of meters). Would a current be as likely to travel in a 0.1 meter circuit as in a 100000000000000 meter circuit given the same resistance? 2. Why does increased resistance result in an increased voltage? Would it not be the opposite to this? The harder it is to do something, the less nature wants to do it right? 3. When I've got a standard 9 volt battery, is that the emf of the battery? Does the actual number of volts I can get out of the battery differ from this number since every conductor has resistance?