First of all, if you have a generator with an open circuit, and you are pedal powering it, where does the energy go? I would say it is lost as heat, but not sure what could heat up. The coils in the generator itself? Next, what happens if you short the output of a generator? Does it make it very difficult to turn? In general, I'm just looking for a good web page on generator theory and design. I can't find anything on google besides just like the very very basic stuff. Ie, if I'm pedaling with x amount of torque, and y amount of rpm, what sort of voltage output should I expect for a given number of coil turns? What sort of design parameters are needed when designing a generator? (I imagine the important metric for output is voltage, and then the amps depend on the load of course, and power output can be calculated from knowing the generator efficency and knowing the power going in, which would be rpm and torque) Also, I would imagine that torque would change depending on electrical load, correct? My end goal is to design a power supply for a laptop that is pedal => generator powered, and I need to know how to spec out the correct generator. Also interested in powering other things, besides laptops. Thanks!