Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy (; French: [oɡystɛ̃ lwi koʃi]; 21 August 1789 – 23 May 1857) was a French mathematician, engineer, and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics. He was one of the first to state and rigorously prove theorems of calculus, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra of earlier authors. He almost singlehandedly founded complex analysis and the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra.
A profound mathematician, Cauchy had a great influence over his contemporaries and successors; Hans Freudenthal stated: "More concepts and theorems have been named for Cauchy than for any other mathematician (in elasticity alone there are sixteen concepts and theorems named for Cauchy)." Cauchy was a prolific writer; he wrote approximately eight hundred research articles and five complete textbooks on a variety of topics in the fields of mathematics and mathematical physics.
Why do the Cauchy Stress Tensor & the Energy Momentum Tensor have the same SI units? Shouldn't adding time as a dimension changes the Energy Momentum Tensor's units?
Did Einstein start with the Cauchy Tensor when he started working on the right hand side of the field equations of GR?
If so, What...
From plotting the given path I know that the path is a curve that extends from z = 1 to z=5 on the complex plane. My plan was to parametrize the distance from z = 1 to 5 as z = x, and create a closed contour that encloses z=0, where I could use Cauchy's Integral Formula, with f(z) being 1 / (z +...
##s_1=2##
##s_2=4##
##s_3=5.333##
##s_4=5.9999##
##(s_n)## is increasing, but unable to guess a bound. Let's see if Cauchy criterion can do something.
For n>2,
$$
s_{n+k} - s_n = \frac{2^{n+1} }{(n+1)!} + \frac{ 2^{n+2} }{(n+2)!} + \cdots \frac{2^{n+k} }{(n+k)!}
$$
$$
s_{n+k} - s_n <...
The definition of a Cauchy surface, as given in, for example, Wald Section 8.3, is "a closed achronal set ##\Sigma## for which ##D(\Sigma) = M##", i.e., every past and future causal curve (timelike or null) through any point in the entire spacetime intersects ##\Sigma##.
The definition of...
My attempt: It can be proved that ##\lim \frac{1}{2^n} = 0##. Consider, ##\frac{\varepsilon}{k} \gt 0##, there exists ##N##, such that
$$
n \gt N \implies \frac{1}{2^n} \lt \varepsilon
$$
Take any ##m,n \gt N##, and such that ##m - k = n##.
##|s_m - s_{m-1} | \lt \frac{1}{2^{m-1}} \lt...
I am in a course in applied strength of materials and we often use the 3D stress tensor for stress analysis of materials i.e. Mohr's circles, bending, torsion, etc. Is the stress-energy tensor in relativity basically a 4-d extension to the Cauchy stress tensor commonly used in mechanical...
This problem is Wald Ch. 10 Pr. 2.; it asks us to show that ##D_a E^a = 4\pi \rho## and ##D_a B^a = 0## on a spacelike Cauchy surface ##\Sigma## (with normal vector ##n^a##) of a globally hyperbolic spacetime ##(M, g_{ab})##. Using the expression ##E_a = F_{ab} n^b## for the electric field gives...
Hi,
I have to find the real and imaginary parts and then using Cauchy Riemann calculate ##\frac{df}{dz}##
First, ##\frac{df}{dz} = \frac{1}{(1+z)^2}##
Then, ##f(z)= \frac{1}{1+z} = \frac{1}{1+ x +iy} => \frac{1+x}{(1+x)^2 +y^2} - \frac{-iy}{(1+x^2) + y^2}##
thus, ##\frac{df}{dz} =...
Problem: Let ## f: \Bbb R \to \Bbb R ## be continuous. It is known that ## \lim_{x \to \infty } f(x) = \lim_{x \to -\infty } f(x) = l \in R \cup \{ \pm \infty \} ##. Prove that ## f ## gets maximum or minimum on ## \Bbb R ##.
Proof: First we'll regard the case ## l = \infty ## ( the case...
Hello fellow physicists,
I need to prove that when ##\omega << \omega_0##, Lorentz equation for refractive indexes:
##n^2(\omega) = 1 + \frac {\omega^2_p} {\omega^2_0 - \omega^2}##
turns into Cauchy's empirical law:
##n(\lambda)=A+\frac B {\lambda^2}##
I also need to express A and B as a...
I've started by writing down the definitions, so we have
$$x_n-y_n\rightarrow 0\, \Rightarrow \, \forall w>0, \exists \, n_w\in\mathbb{N}:n>n_{w}\,\Rightarrow\,|x_n-y_n|<w $$
$$(x_n)\, \text{is Cauchy} \, \Rightarrow \,\forall w>0, \exists \, n_0\in\mathbb{N}:m,n>n_{0}\,\Rightarrow\,|x_m-x_n|<w...
I refer to this page: https://taoanalysis.wordpress.com/2020/03/26/exercise-5-3-2/
I am having trouble understanding the purpose / motivation behind using the min as in ##\delta := \min\left(\frac{\varepsilon}{3M_1}, 1\right)## and ##\varepsilon' := \min\left(\frac{\varepsilon}{3M_2}...
Let us just lay down some definitions. Both sequences are equivalent iff for each ##\epsilon>0## , there exists an N>0 such that for all n>N, ##|a_n-b_n|<\epsilon##.
A sequence is a Cauchy sequence iff ##\forall\epsilon>0:(\exists N>0: (\forall j,k>N:|a_j-a_k|>\epsilon))##.
We proceeded by...
I tested the first function with the Cauchy Riemann equations and it seemed to fail that test, so I don't believe that function is analytic. However, I'm really not sure how to show that it is or is not analytic using the definition of the complex derivative.
How can I find Cauchy principal value. of this integral
\[ n(x) = \int_{a}^{b} \frac{d \omega}{\omega ' ^2 - x^2} \] Where $ a<x<b $
I case $a = 0, b = 3, x = 1$ We get
\[ n(1) = \int_{0}^{3} \frac{d \omega}{\omega ' ^2 - 1^2} = −0.3465735902799727 \] The result shown is the Cauchy...
Dear Everyone,
I am wondering how to use the integral formula for a holomorphic function at all points except a point that does not exist in function's analyticity. For instance, Let f be defined as $$f(z)=\frac{z}{e^z-i}$$. F is holomorphic everywhere except for $$z_n=i\pi/2+2ni\pi$$ for all...
Dear Everyone,
I am wondering how to use the integral formula for a holomorphic function at all points except a point that does not exist in function's analyticity. For instance, Let $f$ be defined as $$f(z)=\frac{z}{e^z-i}$$. $f$ is holomorphic everywhere except for $z_n=i\pi/2+2ni\pi$ for...
How can I prove the Cauchy distribution has no moments?
##E(X^n)=\int_{-\infty}^\infty\frac{x^n}{\pi(1+x^2)}\ dx.##
I can prove myself, letting ##n=1## or ##n=2## that it does not have any moment. However, how would I prove for ALL ##n##, that the Cauchy distribution has no moments?
Define a metric on ##\mathbb{R}[x]## for distinct polynomials ##f(x),g(x)## as ##d(f(x),g(x)) = \frac{1}{2^{n}}##, where ##n## is the largest positive integer such that ##x^{n}## divides ##f(x)-g(x)##. Equivalently, ##n## is the multiplicity of the root ##x=0## of ##f(x)-g(x)##. Set...
I am reading Andrew Browder's book: "Mathematical Analysis: An Introduction" ... ...
I am currently reading Chapter 8: Differentiable Maps and am specifically focused on Section 8.1 Linear Algebra ...
I need some help in fully understanding the proof of Proposition 8.7 ...Proposition 8.7 and...
I am reading "Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering" by John H. Mathews and Russel W. Howell (M&H) [Fifth Edition] ... ...
I am focused on Section 3.2 The Cauchy Riemann Equations ...
I need help in fully understanding the Proof of Theorem 3.4 ...The start of Theorem 3.4 and its...
I am trying to make sense of the wikipedia article section regarding Cauchy product of several series. but am stuck right at the start because the notation used there is unfamiliar to me and not explained previously in the article.
The commas in ##\Sigma a_1, k_1## etc. mean nothing to me. Am I...
Is it appropriate to say that within classical physics the general form of Newton II is the Cauchy momentum equation?
This equation applies to an arbitrary continuum body. Therefore it is more general than the common form of Newton II which applies basically to point masses and centers of mass...
Reading The Theoretical Minimum by Susskind and Friedman. They state the following...
$$\left|X\right|=\sqrt {\langle X|X \rangle}\\
\left|Y\right|=\sqrt {\langle Y|Y \rangle}\\
\left|X+Y\right|=\sqrt {\left({\left<X\right|+\left<Y\right|}\right)\left({\left|X\right>+\left|Y\right>}\right)}$$...
Under what conditions does an integral have a cauchy principal value and how is it related to an integral having an integrable singularity?
E.g $$p.v \int_{-\delta}^{\delta} \frac{dz}{z} = 0$$ If I evaluate the integral along a semi circle in the complex plane I'll get ##i \pi##. So the cauchy...
Let ##d_1## and ##d_2## be two metrics on the same set ##X##. Suppose that a set is open with respect to ##d_1## if and only if it is open with respect to ##d_2##, and a set is bounded with respect to ##d_1## it and only if it is bounded with respect to ##d_2##. (In technical language, ##d_1##...
Homework Statement
Determine whether or not the following sequences of real valued functions are Cauchy in L^{1}[0,1]:
(a) f_{n}(x) = \begin{cases} \frac{1}{\sqrt{x}} & , \frac{1}{n+1}\leq x \leq 1 \\ 0 & , \text{ otherwise } \end{cases}
(b)
f_{n}(x) = \begin{cases} \frac{1}{x} & ...
Homework Statement
Let ##X \subset \mathbb{C}##, and let ##f_n : X \rightarrow \mathbb{C}## be a sequence of functions. Show if ##f_n## is uniformly Cauchy, then ##f_n## converges uniformly to some ##f: X \rightarrow \mathbb{C}##.
Homework Equations
Uniform convergence: for all ##\varepsilon >...
Hello everyone!
I am currently stuck at the two type of questions below, because I am not really sure what method should be used to calculate these question...
Could you give me a hint how to do these questions? :(
So folks, I'm learning complex analysis right now and I've come across one thing that simply fails to enter my mind: the Cauchy Integral Theorem, or the Cauchy-Goursat Theorem. It says that, if a function is analytic in a certain (simply connected) domain, then the contour integral over a simple...
I was browsing through Spivak's Calculus book and found in a problem a very simple way to prove the cauchy schwarz inequality.
Basically he tells to substitute x=xᵢ/[√(x₁²+x₂²)] and similarly for y (i=1 and 2), put into x^2 + y^2 >= 2xy. Add the two cases and we get the result.
The problem is...
I found that the equation is expressed by
there is outer product ...what I really don't get it is if j is a vector then the outer product of j and j is is obtained by multiplying each element of j by the complex conjugate of each element of j which is basically a matrix not a vector
Homework Statement
Let ##x\in\Bbb{R}## such that ##x\neq 0##. Then ##x=LIM_{n\rightarrow\infty}a_n## for some Cauchy sequence ##(a_n)_{n=1}^{\infty}## which is bounded away from zero.
2. Relevant definitions and propositions:
3. The attempt at a proof:
Proof:(by construction)
Let...
Hi,
I'm struggling with a conceptual problem involving the Fourier transform of distributions. This could possibly have gone in Physics but I suspect what I'm not understanding is mathematical.
The inverse Fourier transform of a Cauchy distribution, or Lorentian function, is an exponentially...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
I am not sure. I have not seen the triangle inequality for inner products, nor the Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality for the inner product. The only thing that my lecture notes and textbook show is the axioms for general inner products, the definition of norm...
I am reading "Multidimensional Real Analysis I: Differentiation" by J. J. Duistermaat and J. A. C. Kolk ...
I am focused on Chapter 1: Continuity ... ...
I need help with an aspect of the proof of Theorem 1.6.5 (Completeness of \mathbb{R}^n) ...
Duistermaat and Kolk"s Theorem 1.6.5 and its...
Hello everyone! I'm having a bit of a problem with comprehension of the Cauchy integration formula. I might be missing some key know-how, so I'm asking for any sort of help and/or guideline on how to tackle similar problems. I thank anyone willing to take a look at my post!
Homework Statement...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
Using Cauchy Integration Formula
If function is analytic throughout the contour, then integraton = 0. If function is not analytic at point 'a' inside contour, then integration is 2*3.14*i* fn(a) divide by n!
f(a) is numerator.
The Attempt at a Solution...
I have been trying to fully grasp the concept of the Cauchy stress tensor and so I thought I'd make a post where I clear up my confusion. There may be subsequent replies as I pose more questions.
I am specifically confused at how the stress tensor relates to the control volume in the image...
I am reading John B. Conway's book, "Functions of a Complex Variable I" (Second Edition) ...
I am currently focussed on Chapter III Elementary Properties and Examples of Analytic Functions ... Section 2: Analytic Functions ... ...
I need help in fully understanding aspects of Theorem 2.29 ...
Hi, I've been trying to figure out how to get Cauchy Stress Tensor components (~9) from a surface force for a while now. My background in this subject is not too deep, but I'm trying to build a renderer simulation in my free time.
I can get surface traction from a Stress Tensor:
t =...
Consider the Reissner-Nordstrom metric for a black hole:
$$ds^{2} = - f(r)dt^{2} + \frac{dr^{2}}{f(r)} + r^{2}d\Omega_{2}^{2},$$
where
$$f(r) = 1-\frac{2M}{r}+\frac{Q^{2}}{r^{2}}.$$
We can write
$$f(r) = \frac{1}{r^{2}}(r-r_{+})(r-r_{-}), \qquad r_{\pm} = M \pm \sqrt{M^{2}-Q^{2}}.$$
Then...
Homework Statement
Calculate the integrals of the following functions on the given paths. Why does the choice of path change/not change each of the results?
(c) f(z) = exp(z) / z(z − 3)
https://www.physicsforums.com/file:///page1image10808
i. a circle of radius 4 centred at 0.
ii. a circle...
Say I am given the integral ##\displaystyle \int_0^{\infty} \frac{x \sin (ax)}{x^2 - b^2} dx##. How can I determine whether this improper integral converges in the normal sense, or whether I should just look for the Cauchy Principal Value?
Homework Statement
∫-11 dx/(√(1-x2)(a+bx)) a>b>0
Homework Equations
f(z0)=(1/2πi)∫f(z)dz/(z-z0)
The Attempt at a Solution
I have absolutely no idea what I'm doing. I'm taking Mathematical Methods, and this chapter is making absolutely no sense to me. I understand enough to tell I'm supposed...
Homework Statement
please see attached, I am stuck on the second inequality.
Homework Equations
attached
The Attempt at a Solution
I have no idea where the ##2/\pi## has come from, I'm guessing it is a bound on ##sin \theta ## for ##\theta## between ##\pi/4## and ##0## ?
I know ##sin...
Homework Statement
I need to solve:
x^2y''-4xy'+6y=x^3, x>0, y(1)=3, y'(1)=9
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
I know that the answer is: y=x^2+2x^3+x^3lnx
Where did I go wrong. I was wondering if it's even logical to solve it as an Euler Cauchy and then use variation of parameters...
If $\{x_n\}_{n \ge 1}$ is real sequence and $\limsup\limits_{n \to \infty} \frac{1}{n} \log |x_{n+1}-x_n|<0$, prove that $\{x_n\}$ is Cauchy sequence.
My work: Let $a=\limsup\limits_{n \to \infty} \frac{1}{n} \log |x_{n+1}-x_n| <0$. Then, for every $\varepsilon >0$ there exist $N \in...