What is Classical: Definition and 1000 Discussions

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, generally considered to have begun in Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the late 5th century CE and continuing to present day. Classical music refers to Western musical traditions considered to be apart from or a refinement of Western folk music or popular music traditions. The major periods are the medieval (500–1400), Renaissance (1400–1600), Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1820), Romantic (1800–1910), Modernist (1890–1975) and Postmodern era/Contemporary (1950–present) eras. These periods and their dates are all approximate generalizations and represent gradual stylistic shifts that varied in intensity and prominence throughout the Western world.
The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.European art music is largely distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century. Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches and durations for a piece of music. It includes both sacred (religious) and secular music. In contrast to most popular styles that adopted the song (strophic) form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of highly sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, concerto, fugue, sonata, and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera, cantata, and mass.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. M

    I Help please integrating this function over a rectangular area

    Hi I struggle with integration generally. Could you be able please to talk me through the stages of this one? thanks martyn
  2. D

    Thermo Final Review - specific heat for ideal gas

    TL;DR Summary: why is the answer "all of the above"? Could someone explain why the correct answer is all of the above? I understand that Cv implies a constant volume process, but what about the other two?
  3. billtodd

    Metal, Rock, Instrumental Rock and Fusion

    A classical from the previous century in Fusion: A prog Chord Change And a little bit Metal: Share your own from those genres.
  4. m_prakash02

    A Why do we use covariant formulation in classical electrodynamics?

    I am a graduate physics student currently studying electrodynamics as a core paper. I want to know why exactly do we use only covariant formulation for writing Maxwell's equations? Or do we also use contravariant formulation (i.e., if something like that even exists)?
  5. I

    A Monte Carlo simulation for the classical isotropic 3D Heisenberg model

    here is my attempt to implement using python import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt def initialize_spins(L): """Initialize a random spin configuration with unit magnitudes.""" spins = np.random.normal(size=(L, L, L, 3)) magnitudes = np.linalg.norm(spins, axis=-1...
  6. StenEdeback

    Classical Looking for book about relativistic classical field theory

    Hi, I am trying to learn relativistic classical field theory as a preparation for studying quantum field theory. I am currently reading chapter 13 i Herbert Goldstein's Classical Mechanics edition 3, but I think that this book is a bit too brief and does not fully derive and explain the...
  7. rogdal

    Classical magnetic dipole-dipole interaction in iron

    I'm having a bit of trouble with this exercise because, even if I understand the physics of the dipole-dipole interaction in an ideal classical system, I don't get to know how to approach this problem. I've got a few doubts about how this system would work. First of all, what would be the...
  8. H

    A Radiation back reaction in classical electrodynamics

    I've been doing some research on the topic of radiation reaction force/self force in classical electrodynamics and although there are some discussions on the internet I would like direct answers to these following questions: Is there a rigorous and universally accepted treatment of radiation...
  9. A

    I Is Brownian motion a purely classical phenomenon or is it also quantm?

    A water molecule is as tiny as 0.3 Angstrom. I would expect that quantum effects play a role. I'm wondering if its Brownian motion in a fluid is determined only by classical thermodynamics or if its collisional processes must take into account also quantum scatterings or other effects like...
  10. R

    Equations of State in Modern Classical Physics (Thorne/Blandford)

    TL;DR Summary: Questions regarding the book "Modern Classical Physics" by Thorne/Blandford Hello, I'm going through this book and on pg. 127, regarding equations of state, there is a parameter, t (explicitly stated: "not to be confused with time"), that uses hyperbolic functions to relate the...
  11. C

    Morin classical mechanics differential equation problem

    I was reading the oscillations chapter which was talking about how to solve linear differential equations. He was talking about how to solve the second order differential below, where a is a constant: In the textbook, he solved it using the method of substitution i.e guessing the solution...
  12. A

    I Some classical models of particles and quantum gauge theories

    My article has been published in Quantum Reports. Expanded abstract: There is currently no consensus on the interpretation of quantum theory, so this article may be of interest as it contains a review and new results on some relevant mathematical models emulating well-known quantum theories...
  13. A

    Classical A replacement for Mcauley's Classical mechanics

    Mcauley's "Classical mechanics: transformations, flows, integrable and chaotic dynamics" has a very interesting table of contents, and it has a philosophy of approaching Hamiltonian flows and chaos without using the formalism of modern differential geometry. Unfortunately, after reading the...
  14. C

    I Variational Principles in Classical Mechanics (Douglas Cline)

    Hello, Has anyone read/heard about the textbook Variational Principles in Classical Mechanics, written by Douglas Cline? Any thoughts on whether I could use it as a replacement for Goldstein? Thank you!
  15. becks1

    Classical mechanics problem for a free particle

    Summary: The initial problem states: Consider a free particle of mass m moving in one space dimension with velocity v0. Its starting point is at x = x0 = 0 at time t = t0 = 0 and its end point is at x = x1 = v0t1 at time t = t1 > 0. and this info is to do the 3 problems written out. a)...
  16. R

    Is the Classical Pendulum Formula Still Accurate for Large Theta Values?

    Summary: Hi, I'm trying to solve this problem, if it's not right then please help me with a hint without solving it. This formula is just an approximation for small values of theta, but if Vo was greater than the denominator this will lead to large values of theta and then this solution is not...
  17. SaintRodriguez

    Please help me pick a topic for an essay about classical mechanics

    I was wondering if someone can telling me a topic about classical mechanics which I can write an essay. First I thought to write about Legendre transformation, but I guess that is very general. Also, if someone can tell me some tips to write an scientific essay I'll be so glad.
  18. StenEdeback

    I Best book for Lagrangian of classical, scalar, relativistic field?

    Hi all experts! I would like to read about the Lagrangian of a classical (non-quantum), real, scalar, relativistic field and how it is derived. What is the best book for that purpose?Sten Edebäck
  19. StenEdeback

    Deduction of formula for Lagrangian density for a classical relativistic field

    Hi, I am reading Robert D Klauber's book "Student Friendly Quantum Field Theory" volume 1 "Basic...". On page 48, bottom line, there is a formula for the classical Lagrangian density for a free (no forces), real, scalar, relativistic field, see the attached file. I like to understand formulas...
  20. bigmike94

    Prerequisites for John Taylor classical mechanics

    Inside the textbook, the prerequisites state first year mechanics and some differential equations, although it continues to say the differential equations can be learned as you’re working your way through the book, as differential equations were basically “invented” to be used for applied...
  21. H Ucar

    A Magnetic bound state in classical mechanics

    Seven years ago, I wanted to share and discuss my experiments results there but it was not possible since there was no published peer review paper yet and apparently not fulfilling forum requirements. Now we have such a publication, but still not sure the subject can be discussed here. Anyway...
  22. Physicsphysics

    I Understanding Classical Mechanics: Acceleration

    I'm reading once again through Landau-Lifchitz and I am stuck on the first page! I can't wrap my head around why we only need to define the coordinates and velocities to determine the acceleration? Surely if we only know those two in a single point in time, that's not enough to determine an...
  23. bigmike94

    I Topics covered in John R Taylor Classical mechanics

    I can’t find the chapter list online, does anyone know what topics are covered in John Taylor’s classical mechanics? Would it be similar to what’s covered in Newtonian mechanics, but obviously more advanced. Cheers in advance 👍
  24. matqkks

    Classical Mathematics textbooks

    What are the classical mathematics textbooks for advanced and undergraduate level that a mathematician should possess?
  25. tworitdash

    A Quantum weak measurement parameter estimation vs Classical Estimation

    I am not an expert in quantum theory. I want to carry out some parameter estimation on a set of data I have. I have a model for the data with the parameter(s) of interest as variable(s). The data available is sporadic, meaning non-statistical or techniques involving no prior knowledge on the...
  26. Zaitul Hidayat

    How Do You Apply Zonal Spherical Harmonics in Electromagnetism Problems?

    I don't really understand how to find the solution. I've tried to find the solution in books and google but still can't find it. In general, the Question 1 the problem is using the method of Image charge and Induced surface charge density. but this time my professor changed it to something else...
  27. D

    A classical mechanics problem involve rotating

    I came up with these: (especially not sure if second is right)
  28. D

    Is the Bohr Model Defined by Equating Coulomb and Centripetal Forces?

    So for this question I just want to make sure that 1. Bohr model is that F_coulomb = F_centripetal? and then get w(r) is called determind? 2. for (b) calculate the frequency, should I use Rydberg formula or what?
  29. mohamed_a

    I Classical analogy approach to quantum mechanics

    I have read about several approcahes to bypass some classical restrictions to quantum facts such as the electron being in a torus-like shape to avoid ,the greater than speed of light, rotation paradox . Could you recommend websites , sources or books that give good classical analogy to quantum...
  30. D

    Ipad or classical textbook for notes?

    Hi, I want your opinion regarding modern notetaking technology. Is it better than using the classical pen & paper? As a physics student it would be an advantage to save my notes in the cloud.
  31. Tan Tixuan

    I Classical field in quantum field theory?

    In quantum field theory, we have the following expansion on a scalar field (I follow the convention of Schwarz's book) $$\phi(\vec{x},t)=\int d^3 p \frac{a_p exp(-ip_\mu x^\mu)+a_p^{\dagger}exp(ip_\mu x^\mu)}{(2\pi)^3 \sqrt{2\omega_p}} \quad p^{\mu}=(\omega_p,\vec{p})$$ With commutation relation...
  32. T

    I Kleppner Classical mechanics: Question about stability (p.217)

    I have a question understanding the reasoning in the book. The book says in one dimension F=-dU/dr(p.185). From this, the system is stable at distance a when U'(a)=0 and U''(a)>0 where U is differentiated with respect to r.(p.217) My question arises from the instance of a pendulum where a...
  33. S

    Why nylon bass strings go dead on classical guitars: found an online article

    I asked about this some years ago but I cannot remember into which forum board I put it, but I wanted to know why the brightness of nylon bass strings go dead so fast on classical guitars and the related. I found an explanation in an online article, under the heading, String maintenance: Why do...
  34. Istiak

    I Book suggestions for classical thermodynamics

    I was looking for book on classical thermodynamics. I found lot of related posts in PSE but couldn't find a book which type I was expecting. I was searching for book which covers the whole thermodynamics (not QM but it's ok if there's some knowledge of Relativity), and I want some problems in...
  35. D

    I Frequency of EM waves in classical and quantum physics

    in classical physics, when a charged particle oscillates, it emits an electromagnetic wave, and the frequency of the wave depends on the frequency with which the particle oscillates. But in quantum physics, when an excited atom emits a photon, the energy of the photon depends on the magnitude of...
  36. O

    I Is the classical ideal rocket thrust equation correct?

    Hello! I have recently found this fascinating article: https://zenodo.org/record/3596173#.YJ1ttV0o99B The author claims that classical equation for rocket thrust in incorrect because F is not equal to ma for a changing mass. Neither my professors nor me can see any errors. Do you think this...
  37. K

    I Classical particle in a Penning trap

    Hello! I have a particle in a Penning trap (moving only along the axial direction) and I have a resonant circuit connected to one of the electrodes, measuring the current induced by the particle. Assume that the energy of the particle is much bigger than the thermal energy of the circuit (##k_B...
  38. T

    A Quantum theory without classical time: quantum gravity and unification

    It came to my attention yesterday this, from my ignorant point of view, amazing paper that describes what it looks as another Theory of Everything: https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.02062 If I didnt understand incorrectly, from first principles / a pre quantum theory (Trace Dynamics, 8D octonionic...
  39. Einstenio

    I Classical Mechanics - Motion of a particle

    Show that a point with acceleration given by: a=c*((dr/dt)×r)/|r|3 where c is a constant, moves on the surface of a cone. This is jut an example to illustrate my doubt. I don't know how to obtain the tracjectory given only the acceleration in this format. I realized that if i can show that...
  40. I

    Need a force-like unit for classical particle system simulation

    I am doing a learning project by writing a simulation that includes capacitance and current flow amongst capacitors that may potentially be in parallel. I don't care about certain details yet - dissipation factor, frequency dependent effects, temperature. Tiny capacitences within diode junctions...
  41. A

    I Classical electron uncertainty

    In quantum mechanics it is impossible to prepare an electron in a state where both position and momentum are known with arbitrary accuracy. In classical physics such states do exist, but can they be prepared? If we assume that the electron is a classical particle (small ball of charge) can we...
  42. A

    I Electron two-slit experiment in classical electromagnetism

    Was there any study of this experiment in the context of classical electromagnetism? It is often claimed that such an experiment is impossible to explain classically, yet, the only classical model I've seen employed is Newtonian mechanics (bullets). The EM fields associated with the electrons...
  43. K

    A Non holonomic constraints in classical mechanics textbook

    I want to learn about the non holonomic case in lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. I've seen that many people say that Goldstein 3rd ed is wrong there. Where should I go to learn it. My mathematics level is at the level Goldstein uses. Please help
  44. V

    Books that teach classical mechanics through a discourse method

    Books that teaches classical mechanics through a discourse method ie asking interesting questions and answering them maybe a similar one to Understanding Basic Chemistry Through Problem Solving: The Learner's Approach Book by Jeanne Tan and Kim Seng Chan. Not exactly asking numerical questions...
  45. Kairos

    I Classical Aberration Formula: Understanding & Application

    I believe I have understood the formula of aberration of light ##\tan \theta' = \dfrac{\sin \theta}{\beta + \cos \theta} \sqrt{1-\beta^{2}} ## but I wonder if the non-relativistic formula ## \tan \theta' = \dfrac{\sin \theta}{\beta + \cos \theta} ## has a physical relevance. Does this...
  46. warhammer

    Work & Energy (Question on Classical Mechanics/Slope based Problems)

    I used the Change in Kinetic Energy and equated that with the Work Done. The "Work Done" part comprises of two different functions- one is work done by Gravitational Force while the other is the work done by frictional force (or the brakes). /Delta KE (magnitude wise)= 0.5*1350* (20^2)=270,000...
  47. L

    I Help with Goldstein Classical Mechanics Exercise 1.7

    I'm trying to solve the Goldstein classical mechanics exercises 1.7. The problem is to prove: $$\frac{\partial \dot T}{\partial \dot q} - 2\frac{\partial T}{\partial q} = Q$$ Below is my progress, and I got stuck at one of the step. Now since we have langrange equation: $$\frac{d}{dt}...
  48. A

    B Is Relativity the Evolution of Classical Physics?

    Can someone please tell me what is Classical Physics? Does Kinematics in One Dimension such as in Physics textbook is considered a "Classical Physics"?