What is Classical: Definition and 1000 Discussions
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, generally considered to have begun in Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the late 5th century CE and continuing to present day. Classical music refers to Western musical traditions considered to be apart from or a refinement of Western folk music or popular music traditions. The major periods are the medieval (500–1400), Renaissance (1400–1600), Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1820), Romantic (1800–1910), Modernist (1890–1975) and Postmodern era/Contemporary (1950–present) eras. These periods and their dates are all approximate generalizations and represent gradual stylistic shifts that varied in intensity and prominence throughout the Western world.
The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.European art music is largely distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century. Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches and durations for a piece of music. It includes both sacred (religious) and secular music. In contrast to most popular styles that adopted the song (strophic) form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of highly sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, concerto, fugue, sonata, and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera, cantata, and mass.
TL;DR Summary: why is the answer "all of the above"?
Could someone explain why the correct answer is all of the above? I understand that Cv implies a constant volume process, but what about the other two?
I am a graduate physics student currently studying electrodynamics as a core paper. I want to know why exactly do we use only covariant formulation for writing Maxwell's equations? Or do we also use contravariant formulation (i.e., if something like that even exists)?
here is my attempt to implement using python
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
def initialize_spins(L):
"""Initialize a random spin configuration with unit magnitudes."""
spins = np.random.normal(size=(L, L, L, 3))
magnitudes = np.linalg.norm(spins, axis=-1...
Hi,
I am trying to learn relativistic classical field theory as a preparation for studying quantum field theory.
I am currently reading chapter 13 i Herbert Goldstein's Classical Mechanics edition 3, but I think that this book is a bit too brief and does not fully derive and explain the...
I'm having a bit of trouble with this exercise because, even if I understand the physics of the dipole-dipole interaction in an ideal classical system, I don't get to know how to approach this problem. I've got a few doubts about how this system would work.
First of all, what would be the...
I've been doing some research on the topic of radiation reaction force/self force in classical electrodynamics and although there are some discussions on the internet I would like direct answers to these following questions:
Is there a rigorous and universally accepted treatment of radiation...
A water molecule is as tiny as 0.3 Angstrom. I would expect that quantum effects play a role. I'm wondering if its Brownian motion in a fluid is determined only by classical thermodynamics or if its collisional processes must take into account also quantum scatterings or other effects like...
TL;DR Summary: Questions regarding the book "Modern Classical Physics" by Thorne/Blandford
Hello,
I'm going through this book and on pg. 127, regarding equations of state, there is a parameter, t (explicitly stated: "not to be confused with time"), that uses hyperbolic functions to relate the...
I was reading the oscillations chapter which was talking about how to solve linear differential equations. He was talking about how to solve the second order differential below, where a is a constant:
In the textbook, he solved it using the method of substitution i.e guessing the solution...
My article has been published in Quantum Reports.
Expanded abstract:
There is currently no consensus on the interpretation of quantum theory, so this article may be of interest as it contains a review and new results on some relevant mathematical models emulating well-known quantum theories...
Mcauley's "Classical mechanics: transformations, flows, integrable and chaotic dynamics" has a very interesting table of contents, and it has a philosophy of approaching Hamiltonian flows and chaos without using the formalism of modern differential geometry.
Unfortunately, after reading the...
Hello,
Has anyone read/heard about the textbook Variational Principles in Classical Mechanics, written by Douglas Cline? Any thoughts on whether I could use it as a replacement for Goldstein?
Thank you!
Summary: The initial problem states: Consider a free particle of mass m moving in one space dimension with velocity v0. Its
starting point is at x = x0 = 0 at time t = t0 = 0 and its end point is at x = x1 = v0t1
at time t = t1 > 0. and this info is to do the 3 problems written out.
a)...
Summary: Hi, I'm trying to solve this problem, if it's not right then please help me with a hint without solving it.
This formula is just an approximation for small values of theta, but if Vo was greater than the denominator this will lead to large values of theta and then this solution is not...
I was wondering if someone can telling me a topic about classical mechanics which I can write an essay. First I thought to write about Legendre transformation, but I guess that is very general. Also, if someone can tell me some tips to write an scientific essay I'll be so glad.
Hi all experts!
I would like to read about the Lagrangian of a classical (non-quantum), real, scalar, relativistic field and how it is derived. What is the best book for that purpose?Sten Edebäck
Hi,
I am reading Robert D Klauber's book "Student Friendly Quantum Field Theory" volume 1 "Basic...". On page 48, bottom line, there is a formula for the classical Lagrangian density for a free (no forces), real, scalar, relativistic field, see the attached file.
I like to understand formulas...
Inside the textbook, the prerequisites state first year mechanics and some differential equations, although it continues to say the differential equations can be learned as you’re working your way through the book, as differential equations were basically “invented” to be used for applied...
Seven years ago, I wanted to share and discuss my experiments results there but it was not possible since there was no published peer review paper yet and apparently not fulfilling forum requirements. Now we have such a publication, but still not sure the subject can be discussed here. Anyway...
I'm reading once again through Landau-Lifchitz and I am stuck on the first page! I can't wrap my head around why we only need to define the coordinates and velocities to determine the acceleration? Surely if we only know those two in a single point in time, that's not enough to determine an...
I can’t find the chapter list online, does anyone know what topics are covered in John Taylor’s classical mechanics? Would it be similar to what’s covered in Newtonian mechanics, but obviously more advanced.
Cheers in advance 👍
I am not an expert in quantum theory. I want to carry out some parameter estimation on a set of data I have. I have a model for the data with the parameter(s) of interest as variable(s).
The data available is sporadic, meaning non-statistical or techniques involving no prior knowledge on the...
I don't really understand how to find the solution. I've tried to find the solution in books and google but still can't find it. In general, the Question 1 the problem is using the method of Image charge and Induced surface charge density. but this time my professor changed it to something else...
So for this question I just want to make sure that
1. Bohr model is that F_coulomb = F_centripetal? and then get w(r) is called determind?
2. for (b) calculate the frequency, should I use Rydberg formula or what?
I have read about several approcahes to bypass some classical restrictions to quantum facts such as the electron being in a torus-like shape to avoid ,the greater than speed of light, rotation paradox . Could you recommend websites , sources or books that give good classical analogy to quantum...
Hi,
I want your opinion regarding modern notetaking technology. Is it better than using the classical pen & paper? As a physics student it would be an advantage to save my notes in the cloud.
In quantum field theory, we have the following expansion on a scalar field (I follow the convention of Schwarz's book)
$$\phi(\vec{x},t)=\int d^3 p \frac{a_p exp(-ip_\mu x^\mu)+a_p^{\dagger}exp(ip_\mu x^\mu)}{(2\pi)^3 \sqrt{2\omega_p}} \quad p^{\mu}=(\omega_p,\vec{p})$$
With commutation relation...
I have a question understanding the reasoning in the book.
The book says in one dimension F=-dU/dr(p.185). From this, the system is stable at distance a when U'(a)=0 and U''(a)>0 where U is differentiated with respect to r.(p.217)
My question arises from the instance of a pendulum where a...
I asked about this some years ago but I cannot remember into which forum board I put it, but I wanted to know why the brightness of nylon bass strings go dead so fast on classical guitars and the related. I found an explanation in an online article, under the heading, String maintenance: Why do...
I was looking for book on classical thermodynamics. I found lot of related posts in PSE but couldn't find a book which type I was expecting. I was searching for book which covers the whole thermodynamics (not QM but it's ok if there's some knowledge of Relativity), and I want some problems in...
in classical physics, when a charged particle oscillates, it emits an electromagnetic wave, and the frequency of the wave depends on the frequency with which the particle oscillates.
But in quantum physics, when an excited atom emits a photon, the energy of the photon depends on the magnitude of...
Hello!
I have recently found this fascinating article: https://zenodo.org/record/3596173#.YJ1ttV0o99B
The author claims that classical equation for rocket thrust in incorrect because F is not equal to ma for a changing mass.
Neither my professors nor me can see any errors.
Do you think this...
Hello! I have a particle in a Penning trap (moving only along the axial direction) and I have a resonant circuit connected to one of the electrodes, measuring the current induced by the particle. Assume that the energy of the particle is much bigger than the thermal energy of the circuit (##k_B...
It came to my attention yesterday this, from my ignorant point of view, amazing paper that describes what it looks as another Theory of Everything: https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.02062
If I didnt understand incorrectly, from first principles / a pre quantum theory (Trace Dynamics, 8D octonionic...
Show that a point with acceleration given by:
a=c*((dr/dt)×r)/|r|3
where c is a constant, moves on the surface of a cone.
This is jut an example to illustrate my doubt. I don't know how to obtain the tracjectory given only the acceleration in this format. I realized that if i can show that...
I am doing a learning project by writing a simulation that includes capacitance and current flow amongst capacitors that may potentially be in parallel. I don't care about certain details yet - dissipation factor, frequency dependent effects, temperature. Tiny capacitences within diode junctions...
In quantum mechanics it is impossible to prepare an electron in a state where both position and momentum are known with arbitrary accuracy. In classical physics such states do exist, but can they be prepared?
If we assume that the electron is a classical particle (small ball of charge) can we...
Was there any study of this experiment in the context of classical electromagnetism? It is often claimed that such an experiment is impossible to explain classically, yet, the only classical model I've seen employed is Newtonian mechanics (bullets).
The EM fields associated with the electrons...
I want to learn about the non holonomic case in lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. I've seen that many people say that Goldstein 3rd ed is wrong there.
Where should I go to learn it.
My mathematics level is at the level Goldstein uses.
Please help
Books that teaches classical mechanics through a discourse method ie asking interesting questions and answering them maybe a similar one to
Understanding Basic Chemistry Through Problem Solving: The Learner's Approach
Book by Jeanne Tan and Kim Seng Chan. Not exactly asking numerical questions...
I believe I have understood the formula of aberration of light ##\tan \theta' = \dfrac{\sin \theta}{\beta + \cos \theta} \sqrt{1-\beta^{2}} ##
but I wonder if the non-relativistic formula ## \tan \theta' = \dfrac{\sin \theta}{\beta + \cos \theta} ## has a physical relevance. Does this...
I used the Change in Kinetic Energy and equated that with the Work Done. The "Work Done" part comprises of two different functions- one is work done by Gravitational Force while the other is the work done by frictional force (or the brakes).
/Delta KE (magnitude wise)= 0.5*1350* (20^2)=270,000...
I'm trying to solve the Goldstein classical mechanics exercises 1.7. The problem is to prove:
$$\frac{\partial \dot T}{\partial \dot q} - 2\frac{\partial T}{\partial q} = Q$$
Below is my progress, and I got stuck at one of the step.
Now since we have langrange equation:
$$\frac{d}{dt}...
Can someone please tell me what is Classical Physics?
Does Kinematics in One Dimension such as in Physics textbook is considered a "Classical Physics"?