standard model

  1. takunitoche

    A Derivation of the Yang-Mills 3 gauge boson vertex

    Hello everyone, I am stuck in the derivation of the three gauge-boson-vertex in Yang-Mills theories. The relevant interaction term in the Lagrangian is $$\mathcal{L}_{YM} \supset g \,f^{ijk}A_{\mu}{}^{(j)} A_{\nu}{}^{(k)} \partial^{\mu} A^{\nu}{}^{(i)} $$ I have rewritten this term...
  2. D

    I Why does a Lagrangian matter for the standard model?

    Hi, I don't know much about the standard model but I'm asking out of interest. Why do we actually need a Lagrangian for the standard model? Surely when you apply the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations, you end up with a variety of equations like the Maxwell equations or Dirac equations. Why...
  3. A

    A Renormalization (Electron self energy)

    Hello everybody! I have a big question about the renormalization: I do not understand why the "renormalization condition" is to impose the tree level result. Now I will explain it better. Let's take, for example, the electron self energy. The tree-level contribution is the simple fermionic...
  4. A

    A The product of a matrix exponential and a vector

    Hello everybody! I was studying the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory and I have found this relation: $$e^{\frac{i\beta}{2}}\,e^{\frac{i\alpha_3}{2} \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \\ \end{pmatrix}}\, \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\begin{pmatrix} 0\\ v \\ \end{pmatrix} =...
  5. S

    I Interpreting SM Lagrangian "differential particle" terms

    The Standard Model Lagrangian contains terms like these: ##-\partial_\mu \phi^+ \partial_\mu\phi^-## ##-\frac{1}{2}\partial_\nu Z^0_\mu\partial_\nu Z^0_\mu## ##-igc_w\partial_\nu Z^0(W^+_\mu W^-_\nu-W^+_\nu W^-_\mu)## How should one interpret the "derivative particle fields" like...
  6. C

    I Is this outline of particle physics right?

    Just a quick query here: Is the outline of particle physics at the link below right? I have found it very helpful in a general way, but I am only just learning this stuff and don't want to be misled. https://physics.info/standard/concept-map.pdf Thanks!
  7. YoungPhysicist

    I Is there a simple explanation for Fermi-Dirac statistics?

    Is there a simple explanation for fermi-dirac statistics? I can't understand how a particle can "follow" a statistic.
  8. A

    B Why is the Higgs boson considered a boson?

    Bosons are described as force carrier particles and, as I understand it, the Higgs mechanism explains why photons are massless, just as all the carriers of the strong nuclear force, the gluons, whereas the weak force bosons have mass. A peculiar type of field is postulated, the ‘Higgs field’. It...
  9. R

    I Do photons carry the electric field?

    In basic electrostatics any charged particle will produce an electric field at every point in space, and will have electric filed lines spreading out radially. E = kQ/r^2 The Standard model of particle physics says that the Photon is the force carrier for the Electromagnetic force, just like...
  10. R

    A Electron charge vs quark charge

    I have been trying to understand some of the basic differences in the fundamental nature of leptons and quarks. One article on this issue compares leptons and quarks as "oranges vs apples" to which I basically agree except for one aspect. How can the charges of the quarks be 1/3 or 2/3 the...
  11. heavybuilder

    I Standard Model (Forces interacting with Matter)

    Not the best at physics but trying to understand the standard model. So can someone please tell me if this is right or not and if not, can you explain me why? Higgs bosons reacts with everything that has mass. Electromagnetic force reacts with everything that has charge. Weak force reacts with...
  12. S

    A A symmetric model for leptons

    This is a homework problem in a course in particle physics at Cornell University. Assume the Left Right Symmetric (LRS) model for leptons. The gauge group is GLR = SU(2)L×SU(2)R×U(1)X. The Standard Model group SU(2)L×U(1)Y has to be included in the LRS group. Namely, U(1)Y ⊂ SU(2)R×U(1)X. Find...
  13. mollwollfumble

    A My T-shirt and the Standard Model

    This T-shirt I bought at a physics conference displays the following equation. It looks like the Lagrangian of the Standard Model of particle physics but I only recognise lines 1 (electroweak) and 3 (Higgs mechanism). What are lines 2 and 4 and what is/isn't included? eg. are quarks, gluons...
  14. S

    A Covariant derivative in Standard Model

    The covariant derivative in standard model is given by Dμ = ∂μ + igs Gaμ La + ig Wbμ Tb + ig'BμY where Gaμ are the eight gluon fields, Wbμ the three weak interaction bosons and Bμ the single hypercharge boson. The La's are SU(3)C generators (the 3×3 Gell-Mann matrices ½ λa for triplets, 0...
  15. TAKEDA Hiroki

    I Double sided arrow notation in Dirac Field Lagrangian

    In a thesis, I found double sided arrow notation in the lagrangian of a Dirac field (lepton, quark etc) as follows. \begin{equation} L=\frac{1}{2}i\overline{\psi}\gamma^{\mu}\overset{\leftrightarrow}{D_{\mu}}\psi \end{equation} In the thesis, Double sided arrow is defined as follows...
  16. C

    B Electroweak spontaneous symmetry breaking

    This is a question that I have tried to pose several times without any success but, anyway, I would like to try again for the very last time. Asume for a moment that EW-SSB (electroweak spontaneous symmetry breaking) actually happened in our early universe. Imagine that our Standard Model of...
  17. S

    A How do we know the spins of elementary particles?

    How do we know the spin of an elementary particle? For example, a fermion has spin 1/2; a photon has spin 1; and even the ficticious graviton has spin 2. How do we know these spins? In other words, how are these spins determined?
  18. ohwilleke

    I Do these equations have a non-trivial solution?

    I was reading the following article that tries to use some equations originally proposed by Pauli in 1951 to reason from one of two reasonably plausible axions that there are tight constraints on the fundamental particle content and mass spectrum of the Standard Model together with BSM...
  19. G

    A Divergent Diagrams in the Standard Model

    It is my understanding that the task of enumerating all of the divergent diagrams in a quantum field theory can be reduced to analyzing a hand full of diagrams (well, at the moment I know that this is at least true for QED and phi^4 theory), and that all other divergent diagrams are divergent...
  20. Sophrosyne

    I Why are gluons considered to be elementary particles?

    Gluons are often depicted as fundamental particles in the Standard Model. But in looking at their mechanism, it seems they are not really fundamental particles in the sense that they are fundamental, indivisible, building blocks. They are mesons- a composite quark-antiquark pair, where their...
  21. S

    A Bar on a fermion field, arrows on fermion lines and particle-antiparticle nature of a fermion

    This question is about the use of bar on a fermionic field in a Lagrangian, the use of arrows on external fermion lines and the particle-antiparticle nature of a fermion. For illustration of my question, I will use the following the charged-current interaction of the Standard model...
  22. S

    A Deducing decay processes and Feynman diagrams using Lagrangian and conservation laws

    The decay processes of the ##W## bosons are completely governed by the charged current interaction terms of the Standard model: $$\mathcal{L}_{cc} = ie_{W}\big[W_{\mu}^{+}(\bar{\nu}_{m}\gamma^{\mu}(1-\gamma_{5})e_{m} + V_{mn}\bar{u}_{m}\gamma^{\mu}(1-\gamma_{5})d_{n})\\...
  23. smodak

    Particle The Standard Model in a Nutshell - Goldberg

    Just found this new book on amazon. Looks interesting. I purchased. https://www.amazon.com/dp/0691167591/?tag=pfamazon01-20 The TOC, Preface, and intro could be found here http://press.princeton.edu/titles/11050.html I wish they included a sample chapter as well (the book in not cheap), but I...
  24. L

    Other Graduate Research topic involving QFT and General Relativity

    Last year I finished the undergraduate course in Mathematical Physics. This year, more precisely in March, I'm going to start the graduate course to acquire a master's degree in Physics. Now, for this course I must choose a research topic and find an advisor. This is being a little bit...
  25. Q

    Unruh Effect for Standard Model Fields

    I have seen the derivation for Unruh radiation for a massless, non-interacting scalar field (Carroll). Are there interesting differences that arise for more realistic standard model cases. For example, what does QCD look like for an accelerating observer? Any papers that detail this would be...
  26. S

    I Local Gauge invariance

    Hello! Can someone explain to me what exactly a local gauge invariance is? I am reading my first particle physics book and it seems that putting this local gauge invariance to different lagrangians you obtain most of the standard model. The math makes sense to me, I just don't see what is the...
  27. john baez

    Insights Struggles with the Continuum - Conclusion - Comments

    john baez submitted a new PF Insights post Struggles with the Continuum - Conclusion Continue reading the Original PF Insights Post.
  28. john baez

    Insights Struggles with the Continuum - Part 7 - Comments

    john baez submitted a new PF Insights post Struggles with the Continuum - Part 7 Continue reading the Original PF Insights Post.
  29. A

    I Is the SM of particles physics and Cosmology SM

    I'm in a deep discussion with a friend. He says that the Standard Model of particle physics is actually known by Standard Model of cosmology and that both are the same and that the SM of particle physics is in the Minkousky geometry.... I disagree about this, I do think that the SM of particle...
  30. mfb

    Insights LHC Part 4: Searching for New Particles and Decays - Comments

    mfb submitted a new PF Insights post LHC Part 4: Searching for New Particles and Decays Continue reading the Original PF Insights Post.
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