AC circuit generator generates EMF which is due to time-varying magnetic flux.
Then EMF is generated because there is a non-conservative electric field within a circuit.
However, R is defined with respect to the conservative field, where we know v=iR generally holds for an AC circuit. How can we use R derived from an assumption that E=-del V if an AC source generates a non-conservative field within a closed-loop?
Clearly, a non-conservative field can't be del of a scalar function.
*Please refer to the attached question file
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