Suppose a 1 degree of freedom system. Then, the action variable J is defined by(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

[tex]J\equiv\oint p(q)dq[/tex]

where the integral is taken over a period of p(q). What shall this period be in the case of say, an harmonic oscillator, where the path in phase-space is an ellipse and hence p(q) is not even single-valued?

**Physics Forums | Science Articles, Homework Help, Discussion**

Dismiss Notice

Join Physics Forums Today!

The friendliest, high quality science and math community on the planet! Everyone who loves science is here!

The friendliest, high quality science and math community on the planet! Everyone who loves science is here!

# Homework Help: Action variables

**Physics Forums | Science Articles, Homework Help, Discussion**