Hy. I'm looking for a professional astronomy software. Anybody knows ?
To do what? Nobody can give you an answer unless you can frame the question.
Too see the planets how they were some centuries ago, and the sun. The moore details the better.
I want to give a precise hour and date and to see how the planets where on the sky (distance, degrees etc).
Then you need a simple planetarium software package - nothing designed for professionals. Just Google "planetarium software" and see what you come up with.
I use Starry Night: http://store.starrynight.com/
I think i need to be profesional because there would be more things that i want to do.
I hate this progam. I recommend Stellarium, its free and open source and much less clunky to use than starrynight.
I want to recreate astrological events with it. Can it do that ?
It is a processor hog, that's for sure. I'll give Stellarium a try.
Can i see the sun in constelations (by degrees) ? How ?
World Wide Telescope by Microsoft is my favourite astro software. for planets it will do what you are asking for just fine, but where it really shines is in viewing the universe in IR, Radio, Xray and visual.
Well if you want to do it now and cheap, just download Stellarium and try it! I've already done it since this morning - I'm surprised you haven't! In Stellarium (or most other programs) you just enter your location and date/time and just click on the sun and it'll tell you where it is.
That is another awesome one, which shows more than just planets, and lets you view something from another thing. (very descriptive)
How do i go back in time ?
That one seems to have limited ability to go back in time.
As already suggested, World wide telescope will work for what you want.
For instance, here is a screen shot of the program showing the Feb 26, 1979 total solar eclipse as seen from Portland, Or.
On a side note, I use WWT to help me discern what I am looking at. It is much easier to use WWT because it is actual images, instead of simulated stars. I was completely lost on what I was looking at between Denebola and Vindemiatrix with all of the galaxies there, but I was able to know all of them.
How do i see the coordinates of the planets (in degrees) in constelations, for a specific time and location ?
Click the "view" menu and enter the location and time. Then double click on the object you want to look at to center it: the RA and DEC coordinates are at the bottom right corner of the screen.
What about the time ? Is it gregorian ? Can it be switched ?
Yes. If you want to use a different one, you'll have to make the conversion yourself.
Here's a handy calendar converter
What about the moon position and the other planets from a certain point from earth ?
Separate names with a comma.