1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data The problem and its solution are attached. 2. Relevant equations N/A 3. The attempt at a solution I'm very confused about how output pulse trains work. I already checked online (including Wikipedia) so, could someone please give me an explanation of the absolute basics in an easy-to-understand way? I'm confused about what the “rectangle-ness” around the numbers is for and how it works. What I DO get is that the output is the same as the input A since input B is a constant 1 and, converting “1” to “True”, we get unknown AND True = unknown. Any input for helping me fully understand this problem would be greatly appreciated!