Here is an NY Times article by Carl Zimmer, describing recent advances in predicting protein design. This involves going from an amino acid sequence to a predict a protein 3D structure or going from what you want in a protein to the amino acid sequence that can generate it. This has long been a big computational problem. They seem to have it solved (so claims the article). If so, this extends our ability to understand and control the stuff biology is made of and to intentionally modify it to our will. This will close the gap between genetic programming and biological organisms vested with the particular desired traits. Proteins are a step beyond the rather direct computer-like information conveying mechanisms that nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) use to store and utilize information. That information, stored by natural selection over millions of years, is utilized when proteins are created (using the encoded mechanisms of ribosomes and tRNAs). Proteins can have a wide variety of shapes, chemistries, binding sites, different stable conformations, etc. Proteins can have direct effects on cellular properties and behavior: receptors (binding and responses), cytoskeleton (cell motility, strength/resistance of cell to mechanical distortion), production of signal molecules, ... The relationship in biology amino acid sequence and protein structure is like the relationship between letters and words in our written language. Going from a moderately sized set of components (26 letters; 20+ amino acids) to an almost vast number of possible words or proteins.