# Confused about voltage at electron level

• NoName707
In summary, the conversation discusses voltage and current in relation to an NMOS transistor being turned on and off. The electric field is seen as a wave moving down a trace, with the voltage being proportional to the number of electrons. The high capacitance and resistance of the gate is due to its area and thinness. The current from drain to source is also proportional to the voltage at the gate. There is a question about the visualization of voltage on a trace and the cause of extra "field lines." The response explains that the voltage differences are not due to more electrons, but rather the same electrons moving faster. The concept of electromagnetics is also mentioned.

#### NoName707

Ok, so I've been struggling with understanding voltage down to the electron level. I know a voltage by itself has no meaning. We want a voltage difference. i.e. voltage diff between point A and B and that ground really has no meaning except as a reference. and i know that current is the movement of charge and that voltage is the electric field. my question is as follows.

Say I have an NMOS transistor which i am turning on and off with a switch. being a high impedance input (gate) there will be very minimal current draw.perhaps current to charge the line+gate capacitance and leakage current. If this is considered a transmission line, we will see the voltage move down the trace as a wave perhaps taking 1ns to move 6 inches. what exactly is happening here? How is the electric field moving down? is the voltage proportional to the number of electrons? i know the voltage is a force, but the force has to come from something.

Thanks!

let me first state that i don't know what I'm talking about but i'll try. from what i know it is the fact that the gate had been doped so that it's missing electrons, and all that's happening a middle layer of doped silicon that has been depleted of an electron in the outer layer of atoms in a boron-silicon bond gets back it's electrons allowing an two/three layers of doped phosphorus-silicon bond with extra electrons to pass (jump to the next outer shell of the next closest conductor). the reason for the high capacitance and resistance is because of the area of the gate, the small breakdown voltage of the gate is due to how thin it is. the current from drain to source should be proportional to the voltage at the gate.

light_bulb, thanks! i was actually talking more about the electric field moving down the trace as a wave. If i were to visually depict the voltage on a trace what would a 3V line look in comparision to a 5V line? just more electrons? I didn't think electrons could just bunch up next to each other because their fields would tend to push them away from each other.

I know there are will be more "field lines" but what causes these extra "field lines"

NoName707 said:
If i were to visually depict the voltage on a trace what would a 3V line look in comparision to a 5V line? just more electrons? I didn't think electrons could just bunch up next to each other because their fields would tend to push them away from each other.

I know there are will be more "field lines" but what causes these extra "field lines"

not more electrons, the same electrons moving faster as far as the other questions i haven't jumped into the physics type stuff like electromagnetics yet.

## 1. What is voltage at the electron level?

Voltage at the electron level refers to the force or potential difference between two points that determines the movement of electrons. It is a measure of the energy required to move an electron from one point to another.

## 2. How is voltage measured at the electron level?

Voltage at the electron level is measured using a voltmeter, which is a device that measures the potential difference between two points. It is usually measured in units of volts (V).

## 3. Why is it important to understand voltage at the electron level?

Understanding voltage at the electron level is important because it is the driving force behind many electrical processes and devices. It helps us understand how electricity works and how we can control and use it.

## 4. How does voltage at the electron level affect electrical circuits?

Voltage at the electron level affects electrical circuits by determining the flow of electrons through the circuit. Higher voltage means more energy for the electrons to move, resulting in a stronger current.

## 5. How can voltage at the electron level be changed?

Voltage at the electron level can be changed by altering the potential difference between two points. This can be done by using devices such as batteries, generators, or transformers to provide a different voltage to the circuit.