# Diamagnetic electrons in a homogenous magnetic field

• anorred
In summary, when a diamagnetic material is placed in a homogeneous magnetic field, the electrons align anti-parallel to the field, resulting in no net magnetic moment. This is different from paramagnetic substances, where the electrons align parallel to the field. Paired electrons cannot align parallel to the field due to the Pauli exclusion principle. The alignment of atoms with an external magnetic field is a statistical average and can be affected by thermal fluctuations. Diamagnetic substances have a negative magnetic susceptibility.
anorred
When you place a diamagnetic material in a homogeneous magnetic field, do the electrons of the material align with the field?

No that's for paramagnetic substances; the (magnetic) dipole moments of the tiny current loops making up diamagnetic substances align anti-parallel to the external magnetic field.

Can you expand on that? I'm curious.

Well ok now I get it actually. So they do align with the field in an anti-parallel fashion, thus having no net magnetic moment.

I have another question. Would paired electrons or electrons of a molecular bond align with a homogenous magnetic field?

There is a net magnetization (magnetic moment per unit volume) and it is anti-parallel to the external homogenous magnetic field; we say that the diamagnetic substance has a negative magnetic susceptibility. Also, when we talk about the atoms aligning with an external magnetic field and whatnot we are speaking of statistical averages; it is not necessarily true for each and every constituent of the substance due to things like thermal fluctuations. Finally, paired electrons cannot align parallel with an external magnetic field because of the Pauli exclusion principle; this is why paramagnetism is more prominent in substances wherein the atoms have an odd number of electrons.

## 1. What is a diamagnetic material?

Diamagnetic materials are substances that have a very weak or negligible response to an applied magnetic field. This is because they have all their electrons paired up and their individual magnetic fields cancel each other out, resulting in no overall magnetic moment.

## 2. How do diamagnetic materials behave in a magnetic field?

When placed in a magnetic field, diamagnetic materials will create an induced magnetic field in the opposite direction, causing them to slightly repel from the magnetic field. This is known as the diamagnetic effect.

## 3. What is the significance of diamagnetism in electron behavior?

Diamagnetism is a fundamental property of electrons and is a result of their orbital motion. It is important in understanding the behavior of electrons in materials and plays a role in various phenomena such as superconductivity and magnetism.

## 4. How do diamagnetic electrons behave in a homogenous magnetic field?

In a homogenous magnetic field, diamagnetic electrons will align themselves in the direction of the magnetic field and create an induced magnetic field in the opposite direction. This causes the electrons to experience a force that is perpendicular to both the direction of the magnetic field and their own motion.

## 5. Can diamagnetism be observed in everyday materials?

Yes, diamagnetism can be observed in everyday materials such as water, wood, and plastics. However, the effect is very weak and requires a strong magnetic field to be noticeable. Most materials exhibit a combination of diamagnetism and other magnetic properties, such as paramagnetism or ferromagnetism.

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