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But Hawking and Ellis has this at p. 90:

[The weak energy condition] will not hold for the 'C'-field proposed by Hoyle and Narlikar (1963). This again is a scalar field with m zero, only this time the energy-momentum tensor has the opposite sign and so the energy density is negative. This allows the simultaneous creation of quanta of positive energy fields and of the negative energy 'C'-field.

I had always imagined that the C field was just some vague hand-waving by Hoyle. Is it really a field theory?

Is everything perfectly OK in classical relativity if we allow such a field?

Quantum-mechanically, is there really a reasonable field theory with such a field? I'm imagining a Dirac sea that isn't full. Not sure what state you would refer to as the vacuum. Are we talking about doing quantum mechanics with a spectrum of energy states that isn't bounded below? Don't Bad Things happen then?

If we're creating negative-energy C-field quanta in the steady-state theory, where do they all end up? Can we detect them? Don't their gravitational fields cancel out the gravitational fields of the hydrogen atoms being created?