Hello folks and happy holidays! So I have a theoretical physics question for everyone, I am simply very interested in this subject and would like to know more about how to find, mathematically speaking the force required to create an indentation of a certain size in an object based on known numbers or estimates on the material, the area and volume etc. For this theoretical question I have visualized before me 3 4 meter by 4 meter cubes, one is made of granite, the other is brass and yet another is iron. Now, what factors do I require, and what formula would be most efficient for a laymen (in math and physics in general) such as myself to find out how much force I need to send a chisel with an area of 43 square inches into each object 7 inches deep? The Chisel has a volume of 71 inches cubed. Taking into account all the material I have to move inside these solid blocks to get that many inches in, and the force required to succeed in one attempt. So to summarize, a chisel of previously mentioned dimensions is being struck 7 inches into a solid 4 meter by 4 meter block of granite, brass and iron and I want to know how much force that would be required in newtons. I thought I would also include some things I have found out by myself and others can correct me on my workings so far, as I said I am not that experienced at this sort of thing. An acquaintance of mine gave me a formula that goes as follows; area (43 inches square) transferred into meters square and multiplied by the hardness of a material, my contact said 490 MPa for Iron, 200 MPa for brass would give me a figuire that when multiplied by 1 million would leave me with newtons required to indent an area of said material. But unless I am mistaken, this would only give me the required force to indent to begin with, not the required force to create an indentation of a certain volume, nor would it factor in the material inside the solid blocks that may be moved by moving said volume/area of material? If anyone has a formula or a source on how to work this out I would be very much appreciated. The general request can be simplified down to if anyone has a good formula or calculation to find force required for such an impact on said materials. The visual aid of blocks and a chisel is just my way of considering the problem. Many thanks to all, and happy holidays again!