What is Material: Definition and 1000 Discussions

A material is a substance or mixture of substances that constitutes an object. Materials can be pure or impure, living or non-living matter. Materials can be classified based on their physical and chemical properties, or on their geological origin or biological function. Materials science is the study of materials and their applications.
Raw materials can be processed in different ways to influence their properties, by purification, shaping or the introduction of other materials. New materials can be produced from raw materials by synthesis.
In industry, materials are inputs to manufacturing processes to produce products or more complex materials.

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  1. Y

    Does G10 Material in Pocket Knives Pose a Cancer Risk?

    I have been looking at pocket knives, seems like all the ones with G10 handle scales have a warning about cancer. This is a very typical pocket knife. https://www.chicagoknifeworks.com/steel-will-cutjack-c22m-linerlock-od/ You see the cancer warning message? The rest of the knife is all...
  2. T

    Wet corrosion of CuNiFer pipe in seawater

    This CuNiFer alloy pipe is used in a seawater cooling system and is electrical insulted with nearby metals; this prevents galvanic corrosion to occur since there is no contact with other metals. I've seen multiple sources that say CuNiFer is very corrosion resistance. The pipe is still...
  3. T

    Sacrificial Anode on isolated copper alloy pipe

    For a seawater cooling system there is a isolated copper alloy pipe where seawater flows through protected with sacrificial Anode. For galvanic corrosion there needs to be two different metals connected in a presence of an electrolyte, since this isn't the case. For what kind of corrosion is...
  4. B

    Language Learning and Cultural Identity: A Finnish Scientist's Perspective

    I think the title speaks for itself, I am from a country that half of the planet doesn't know exists. Iäm a typical finn that is socially so akward that wont go to the common tutor meeting to get help, but rather goes online and spends way too long on simple problems.,
  5. S

    Which material has the greatest Young's Modulus?

    My answer is (B) since it has the highest slope for the straight line part of the graph but the answer key is (A). Is it because the slope of graph B will decrease until the value less than slope A? So we don't only consider the straight line part but the whole graph? Thanks
  6. hagopbul

    B Is this material is good for fiber optics and who would buy it?

    Hello All : as i try to create better economical situation for my self , as some of you noticed that i tried to enhance few things in engines , although it did not quaitly work out it lead to another invention , i couldnt change it yet to economical benefit , due to tests required , and dont...
  7. Eitanburg

    Help finding the right material for non-conductive tubing

    Hi, I need a tube that will be shatter proof, non conductive for electricity and be a good heat insulator, it need to be rigid and sustained high temperature (~250 c°)
  8. S

    Advertised as "gold leaf" - but what material is it really?

    I've been importing this material from China for years. However, shipping is getting more and more expensive, slow and unreliable. It would be a great to have a local manufacturer/supplier but I don't even know what it is. It is advertised as "imitation gold leaf" but... Imitation gold leaf from...
  9. emilmammadzada

    Books on the Thickness and Material of Space Suits

    Dear Experts, are there any books available that discuss the thickness and material of space suits?
  10. Scott Chapel

    Enclosure Panel Material and Heat Transfer

    Referring to the attached, the bottom right is an electronics compartment. The external panels are 20GA steel powder coated yellow. There is 1-inch of R-6 foam board insulation on the inside of all external walls. The skid is exposed to ambient heat and direct sunlight when on site. If we...
  11. Astronuc

    Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) Material Test Reactor

    The JHR Material Test Reactor is currently under construction at the CEA Cadarache centre. https://jhrreactor.com/en/about/ The CEA began exploring the possibility of designing and building a new reactor to replace its material test reactor called Osiris* in the 1980s and 1990s. The JHR...
  12. A

    B Magnetic field coil ferrous material for loudspeaker

    Hi everyone. there are materials called soft magnetic and they are halfway between a permanent magnet and a ferromagnetic material. I would like to try to make a field coil loudspeaker where the maximum amount of flux-density is very important but also the amount of current it takes to create...
  13. S

    I Wall material effect on Van der Waals gas?

    Ref: Van der Waals Equation @ Wikipedia The above paragraph is explains how intermolecular attraction reduces the gas pressure, assuming that there is no attraction between walls and particles. In practice, would there be a change in pressure from one kind of wall to another, if we ensure...
  14. O

    M700 Steel in Maxwell Electronics 2D Material Library

    Hi everybody, I don't have M700 grade silicon/electrical steel data to add to Maxwell Electronics 2D Material Library. How/Where can I find this data? Could you help me? Thanks, Oguzhan Gonc
  15. abdulbadii

    On aluminium as vise / clamp material

    This's slight confusion as productions/markets have aluminium material for making up a vise clamp Is it really going to workable/viable and which type aluminium could reliably be as vise clamp ?
  16. alukhm

    Wood/Glass/Metal Magnet Inside a Shell containing Ferromagnetic Metal

    Hello all! I have a earring project with magnets involved but no magnet expert involved :( Here are a few stupid questions I hope someone can help us with! BACKGROUND: We are designing magnetic earrings. The earrings are meant to clamp the ear with 3 different levels of pressure. The magnetic...
  17. anorlunda

    I JWST Image Reveals Processes Ejecting Material in Star Formation

    Thanks to the JWST, we have this stunning picture. The APOD description says What are the processes that eject material at this stage?
  18. rogdal

    I Hologram recording on photorefractive material

    Good morning, I am developing an experiment on how to study the kinetics of etching/erasure of holographic lattices in a photorefractive material and I have some doubts about the procedure to follow. I have a single-mode He-Ne laser with monochromatic light of wavelength 632.8 nm and the...
  19. W

    Ideas on How This Exhibit was Designed?

    Watching this exhibit from years ago () led me to think that ball bearings will bounce really well from steel glockenspiel bars, but that wasn't the case when I tested this myself with a stainless steel ball bearing and a steel glockenspiel bar. Granted, I was just propping up the bare...
  20. V

    Why are the effects of a magnetized material neglected in this case?

    According to what I know, the net magnetic field ##\vec B## inside a solenoid is given by $$\vec B = \mu_0 \vec H + \mu_0 \vec I$$ where ##\vec B## is the net magnetic field inside a current carrying solenoid, ##\vec H## is the magnetic intensity ( aka magnetic intensity or magnetizing field...
  21. DTMsurf

    Nuclear Energy reading material

    Summary: I am looking for suggestions on an informative read surrounding nuclear energy I am a junior year physics student at UCSB looking to go to grad school for nuclear physics and eventually work with nuclear energy. My curriculum at UCSB does not offer any explicit classes surrounding...
  22. A

    B Time Dilation & Bosons: Decay Rate Changes?

    Hi, It is easy to find discussions about time dilation and muon Half-Life. Is it meaningful to discuss whether bosons capable of pair production can have their decay rate changed if they pass through material?
  23. S

    Ultimate tensile stress of material

    My answer is A but the answer key is B. I don't understand why B. I would think B is the breaking point. Thanks
  24. TenaciousB

    Rigid binding material that can dissolve?

    Hello there! I am working on a project where we need to bind together 2mm Tungsten shot into a solid shape. The shapes are around 10mm x 10mm x 12mm. I need to be able to reclaim the Tungsten beads after use. Thus far I have found that water soluable wax has been a good substance, however it...
  25. R

    Heat Transfer Through a Two Material System due to a Light Source

    I have been given the task of modeling the heat transfer from a light source of known power into a system consisting of two connected materials. I must find the temperature change in the bottom surface. The two materials are initially in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. My first...
  26. J

    Graphene/GO-based elastic material

    Is it currently possible to create a Graphene or Graphene Oxide-based polyester film, but with significantly lower helium permeability than currenlty avalible materials? What would be the best way to create such a material and what type of processes and equipment would be involved in the...
  27. Ahmed1029

    Griffith's problem 4.37 -- A point dipole at the center of a sphere of linear dielectric material

    I tried to solve it for some time and then looked at the solution manual, which got me completely lost. Those are the first lines of the solution : I'm not so sure how equation 4.39: makes him conclude that the same relation holds for dipole moments. My second concern is that I'm not sure how...
  28. S

    Oblique slab dieletric material in a capacitor

    With reference to picture, l have an oblique slab of material dieletric in a capacitor. The plates of capacitor are infinite and far. How can calculate E and D in dieletric?
  29. R

    Silvaco TCAD issue: About user-defined material

    I built a structure which contained a self-defined material region, using the codes: When the device structure was set up, it showed the user-material right, like: but when i imported the device structure to another .in file, it warns: Does anyone know what is wrong ?
  30. I

    Directing magnetic field lines by using diamagnetic material

    I want to improve the magnetic field strength at the surface of a magnet configuration by utilizing diamagnetic materials to guide the magnetic field lines. I have not the proper equipment to measure the effect myself but would this work? This is the initial configuration with four magnets side...
  31. JD_PM

    Other How to efficiently post questions related to paper material?

    Hi guys.Lately I have been posting questions related to paper material and I am getting no replies (here, here and here). I am convinced it's not only due to the difficulty of the topic but the way I am posting it. Should I "go to the point"? Honestly, it's also acceptable that people only...
  32. W

    I Magnetization inside a diamagnetic material antiparallel to ##B_{ext}##

    Let's say I have a constant magnetic field and I dive into it a diamagnetic material. Griffiths says that in the presence of a magnetic field, matter becomes magnetized and it will be found to contain many tiny dipoles with a net alignment along some direction. However, what's exactly the link...
  33. N

    Why and How Ethanol + Water + Raw Material contain Essential Oil

    Dear everyone. I wish you all happy and healthy after this Covid pandemic.Last week i used ethanol mixed with raw materials, got the solution ( suppose ethanol + oil + wax +etc ). And I add water to that Ethanol Solution above with ratio 1/1...inside the mixing solution it formed a resin ( slime...
  34. R

    Displacement Electric Field Outside Dielectric Material

    I know that inside region 1, the D-field is zero as it is a conducting sphere, the E-field must be zero. It makes sense that in region 2 (inside the dielectric) there is a D-field. My question is, is there a D-field outside the dielectric material (r>R)? Obviously there will be an E-field, but...
  35. Istiak

    Find electric field inside a material

    From the second equation I get that, ##\vec D =\frac{q}{4\pi \vec r^2}\hat r## From first equation I get that ##\vec E = \frac{q}{4\pi \vec r^2 \epsilon}=\frac{q}{4\pi \vec r^2 K \epsilon_0}## But I saw that the answer is ##\vec E=\frac{\vec E_0}{K}## While writing the comment my mind said...
  36. P

    Difference between the words "material" and "matter"

    Summary:: Difference between the material and matter They look similar but I know they differ. What might be the possible difference between them? Let's discuss.
  37. L

    Magnetization of ferromagnetic material

    I have thought about the following ##\oint \vec{H}\cdot d\vec{l}=0\Leftrightarrow H_{int}(D-h)+H_{ext}h=0\Leftrightarrow (\frac{B}{\mu_0}-M)(D-h)+\frac{B}{\mu_0}h=0\Leftrightarrow M=\frac{D}{D-h}\frac{B}{\mu_0}## but (supposing what I have done is correct) I don't understand which value of ##B##...
  38. A

    Material Characterization of Semiconductors

    I would like to plan on a postgraduate studies in Material Characterization - Semiconductor; how difficult is this subject since there are a varity of technques to master them properly in order to join the Semiconductor Industry?
  39. A

    Studying Thin-Films: Do I Need Material Science Background?

    Do I need to have a solid background in Material Science if I would like to study thin-films?
  40. T

    Mars - Igneous Rock, Exposed to Water, and with Organic Material

    A good candidate for the sample retrieval mission. https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/nasa-s-perseverance-mars-rover-makes-surprising-discoveries
  41. Furno

    B Is there a material that allows visible light and UV light to pass through?

    Is there a material that allows visible light and uv light to pass through? Edit: A physical material
  42. K

    Individual project on Energy harvesting using piezoelectric material

    I have two questions: 1) Is it possible to cut the material with a laser cutter or scissors or do I need to have a specific tool? 2) What is the best way to attach the PZT-5H material to the beam but it can be easily detached for using it on another beam ( so no epoxy glue)?Thank you
  43. A

    B Creep and its effects on a material

    What I do not get is why should a stress much lower than yield point cause deformation in a material? If temperature is high intermolecular attraction is reduced and thus even low stress can deform things. But if it is low Then a force lower than yield point should be less than intermolecular...
  44. Melbourne Guy

    Writing: Input Wanted Best material for heat exchanger on a space ship

    Looking for the best material for a heat exchanger exposed to vacuum in a space ship. I've initially gone with radiator vanes that are a ceramic blend and typically operate at twenty-five hundred degrees, but then I started wondering if there is a better material...and now I'm here, hoping for...
  45. P

    Bethe formula dependence on charge of the material

    I think that it is a trick question and that the answer is that given dependence does not exist. Could anyone tell me if I am right?
  46. J

    A How to calculate the temperature change of a laser-irradiated material

    I am looking to approximately calculate the temperature change of a sample that was exposed to a laser pulse. Experimentally, we know the optical absorption, reflection, and transmission, as well as the source parameters for our laser system. I realize that I will have to make approximations...
  47. U

    Engineering Can Fatigue Failure of Material be Demonstrated at Home Using Everyday Items?

    What are some creative ways to display fatigue failure of material due to axial, bending, torsional loading using common household items? This is an experiment I have to do at home, I need help with some ideas
  48. supern0va

    Engineering Material Science Books for Mechanical Engineering

    Hello, I'm looking for a book that explains the subject of material science so that I can apply that knowledge to mechanical engineering. I was wondering if Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction by Callister might be a good choice. Could that book help me in mechanical engineering...
  49. abdulbadii

    Magnetizing a ferromagnetic material

    How do we magnetize a ferromagnetic material the best, easiest way, e.g., can we just let it sit around strong magnets in a particular position?