That's not an exponent, just a number in binary form. To convert we do the following
16 8 4 2 1
1 0 1 1 1
So, we have one 16, no 8, one 4, one 2, and one 1. We sum them to get 16+4+2+1=23. The division algorithm can be used to convert from decimal to binary.
23-16=7, so we put a 1 in the 16 column.
7-8<0, so we put a 0 in the 8 column.
7-4=3. so we put a 1 in the 4 column.
3-2=1, so we put a 1 in the 2 column.
2-1=1, so we put a 1 in the 1 column.
The thing that was confusing was that you were asking about
"converting an exponent". You are really just asking about converting a number. The fact that the number happens to be an exponent in the formula is not important.
Another way to do the same thing is:
2 divides into 23 11 times with remainder 1
2 divides into 11 5 times with remainder 1
2 divides into 5 2 times with remainder 1
2 divides into 2 1 time with remainder 0
2 divides into 1 0 times with remainder 1
Now that we have reached "0 times" write the remainders in reverse order : 10111 base 2 is 23 base 10.
HallsofIvys methods works for conversion from base 10 to any base, simply divide by the base, the remainder gives the digits in the new base, starting with the least significant.