A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter. Systems of two or more stars are called multiple star systems. These systems, especially when more distant, often appear to the unaided eye as a single point of light, and are then revealed as multiple by other means.
The term double star is often used synonymously with binary star; however, double star can also mean optical double star. Optical doubles are so called because the two stars appear close together in the sky as seen from the Earth; they are almost on the same line of sight. Nevertheless, their "doubleness" depends only on this optical effect; the stars themselves are distant from one another and share no physical connection. A double star can be revealed as optical by means of differences in their parallax measurements, proper motions, or radial velocities. Most known double stars have not been studied adequately to determine whether they are optical doubles or doubles physically bound through gravitation into a multiple star system.
Binary star systems are very important in astrophysics because calculations of their orbits allow the masses of their component stars to be directly determined, which in turn allows other stellar parameters, such as radius and density, to be indirectly estimated. This also determines an empirical massluminosity relationship (MLR) from which the masses of single stars can be estimated.
Binary stars are often resolved as separate stars, in which case they are called visual binaries. Many visual binaries have long orbital periods of several centuries or millennia and therefore have orbits which are uncertain or poorly known. They may also be detected by indirect techniques, such as spectroscopy (spectroscopic binaries) or astrometry (astrometric binaries). If a binary star happens to orbit in a plane along our line of sight, its components will eclipse and transit each other; these pairs are called eclipsing binaries, or, together with other binaries that change brightness as they orbit, photometric binaries.
If components in binary star systems are close enough they can gravitationally distort their mutual outer stellar atmospheres. In some cases, these close binary systems can exchange mass, which may bring their evolution to stages that single stars cannot attain. Examples of binaries are Sirius, and Cygnus X1 (Cygnus X1 being a wellknown black hole). Binary stars are also common as the nuclei of many planetary nebulae, and are the progenitors of both novae and type Ia supernovae.
Hi, I am a ninthgrade student from Portugal with nothing to do, and I have decided that I want to build a simple regression algorithm in Desmos (the online calculator) to fit random binary inputs and maybe predict the next binary digits (although that part may take a considerable amount of...
Hello,
According to https://www.fico.com/ficoxpressoptimization/docs/latest/mipform/dhtml/chap2s1.html?scroll=ssecabsval the formula for absolute values are :
y =  x1  x2 for two variables x1, x2 with 0 ≤ xi ≤ U
Introduce binary variables d1, d2 to mean
d1 : 1 if x1  x2 is the positive...
Would it be plausible to have two gas giants orbiting each other, a few million km apart, with a terrestrial planet at their mutual L4 or L5 point so that they both appear as visible disks fixed in the sky? Or would the terrestrial planet not be stable there and end up ejected?
If we have an arbitrary square matrix populated randomly with 1s and 0s, is there an operator which will return a unique number for each configuration of 1s and 0s in the matrix?
i.e. an operation on
$$ \begin{pmatrix}
1 &0 &0 \\
1 & 0 & 1\\
0 & 1 & 0
\end{pmatrix} $$
would return something...
So, my approach and solution are as follows:
$$
[x * y] = \{ z \in M : z \sim (x * y) \}
$$
Since we know that ##a * b \sim a^{\prime} * b^{\prime}## we can rewrite ##z## as ## x^{\prime} * y^{\prime} ##. Plugging this in yields:
$$
[x * y] = \{ x^{\prime}, y^{\prime} \in M : x^{\prime} *...
In class we were given the example of a 32bit architecture, so the opcode has 5 bits, register A had four bits, register B had four bits, the destination register had 4 bits and the offset was 15 bits, this was how it was done for "add" instruction. But when I was further reading about it...
I'm looking for a database of binary stars within 10 PC of Earth, including information such as eccentricity of orbits, their distance from one another, etc. I'm hoping to find a list with this information, or just a collection of pages with this information. I've tried Simbad but I can't find...
1
000
0
1
000
0
0
001
1
0
001
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
On the left is my input, in the middle is my output and on the right is the decimal.
0
000
0
0
000
0
1
001
1
0
001
1
1
010
2
Here is another example I was studying where the input is 00101 and I...
I have a difficulty in understanding the question.
Fictitious force is a force whose motion is described using a noninertial frame of reference. Which frame is the question referring to?
define the binary operater $\diamond$ by
$a\diamond b$=4a+4b
and $s\square b$ by $a\square b=a^2+b^2$
find
$(3\diamond 8)\square 2=
[(4(3)+4(8))^2 +2^2]=1940$
ok just want to see if this is correct
before i run thru the ribbon :unsure:
define the binary operater $\oplus$ by
a$\oplus$b=4ab
find
a. $9\oplus 3$=4(9)(3)=108
b. $2\oplus 2$=4(2)(2)=16
c. $3\oplus 9$=4(3)(9)=108
d. $g\oplus h$=4(g)(h)=4gh
ok that was too simple must be doing something wrong
what is the significance lf $\oplus$
When we read about the mass transfer between neutron star pairs in a binary system, how is it that the one receiving the matter can increase its spin rate. Adding mass to a spinning object ought to slow due to conservation of momentum. Where does the energy come from?
For fun, I have decided to implement a simple XOR encryption algorithm. The first step is to convert messages into bytes to perform XOR operation on each bit. The problem has started here. For instance, I want to encrypt this message.
I hiked 24 miles.
Now I need to turn this text into binary...
Why are struct use for linked list and classes used for binary tree.
honestly what is the different between a class and a struct?
I have a teacher one tell me that a class was a struct on steroids.
but what does that really mean ?
I don't need help with a problem just help with easy ways of tackling the problems. Below are my current methods. (Hopefully, all is correct I was in a rush).
Binary to Decimal:
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
I already know 128+64+32= 224 so then 16+1=17, meaning 224+17=241...
Let's assume a binary system with an inclination angle ##i## (angle between the orbital plane and line of sight). Then, according to this source  equations (128) and (129)  for the amplitudes of the tensor polarization modes ("plus": ##+## and "cross": ##\times## polarization) I could write...
hi there I wish to discuss possible ways we could one day come up with a programming code that is even better than binary?
i would like to discuss ideas openly?
anyone got ideas?
i have some if anyone wishes to discuss possible ways?
never / no / yes
Homework Statement:: I'm working on a personal project to convert objects from a simulation using state vectors for position and velocity to Keplerian orbital elements (semimajor axis, eccentricity, argument of periapsis, etc.). However, the equations I am using do not calculate the...
Is there a theorem that states that a set of binary swaps can result in any permutation?
For example, the original set (1,2,3,4,5) can have the swap (24) and result in (1,4,3,2,5). is there a set of specific swaps for each net result permutation?
Summary:: I have to solve this problem stirctly according to the question that follows:
Mentor note: I edited the original code to add indentation and a few blank lines to make the code more readable, so line 43 is no longer the line in question.
so this is the question i tried but it gives...
Hello
I am trying to teach myself some basic maths for astronomy from a book, namely trying to calculate the distance between two stars in a binary system.
One thing i am confused with is what angular separation means and how it can be translated to true physical distance between them using...
I have been studying binary files, my main textbook is not very clear, the other 3 books are useless. I went on line and read a lot of articles. I want to run it by you guys whether I am correct or not:
1) Binary files are written in binary or Hex( same to me that read 4 binary as each hex)...
Would it be in any way physically possible for a binary star system to evaporate / explode, leaving behind two spheres of a solid metal such as gold (or an alloy), which were then rigid enough to drift together and maintain their shapes, rather than just collapsing into a larger sphere?
And...
From what I gather, there are Stype, Ptype & Ttype systems, but I'm having a hard time wrapping my mind around the orbital possibilities. Would it be theoretically possible to have a planet in a binary star system where there is a daily "presunrise" and a "pre (or post) sunset" due to the...
$$P(AB) = P(A \cap B) / P(A)$$
$$P(A) = \text{Chance of 1 being received} = .4 * .98 + .6 * .01 = .398$$
$$P(A \cap B) = \text{Chance 1 being sent and 1 being received} = .4 * .98 = .392$$
$$P(AB) = P(A \cap B) / P(A) = .392 / .398 = .985$$
The correct answer is 147/148 ~= .9932
What am I...
My best guess right now is use Newton's version of Kepler's 3rd Law to maybe find a combined mass, as I'm under the impression that the smaller star's mass would still be too large to ignore, but I'm not confident. And I wouldn't be sure as where t go from their, either. Any guidance would be...
1203.201 which is 010010110011.00110011
How to round the binary representation to 6 significant figures and 12 significant figures? And what is the rounding rule for base 2?
If it was rounded to 6 significant figure, such as 010010 {2}, then it changes its initial value, doesn't it?
So...
These are the two questions.Here's a datasheet for the demux I've been using: https://ecee.colorado.edu/~mcclurel/sn74ls138rev5.pdf
Here's my work:
If you need to see how I got these sum functions, here's the work for that:
Now, if you look at the datasheet for the demux (linked above), you'll...
Problem shown above. Work shown below.
My question is, at the final step, is this a negative one? I can't borrow from anything as there are no more 1's. The solution I've found online just puts a 1 out front without a minus sign and it says it borrowed a 1 to do this, but I don't know where...
I am trying to build a miniature (it should fit on a desk) binary geothermal power plant for educational purposes. I obviously do not expect to drill into the ground with this power plant, but I hope to be able to demonstrate new design principles with it.
I have many questions as to how to do...
Homework Statement: A binary star system consists of M1 and M2 separated by a distance D. M1 and M2 are revolving with an angular velocity w in circular orbits about their common center of mass. Mass is continuously being transferred from one star to the other. This transfer of mass causes...
Okay, so let's simplify things and look at the ideal case, where the 2 masses are the same. Well, this gives us a sine wave pattern to the orbital velocity. Consequently, the acceleration would follow a cosine wave since the derivative of velocity is acceleration and the derivative of sine is...
https://pmt.physicsandmathstutor.com/download/Physics/Alevel/PastPapers/AQAOld/Unit5/June%202015%20MS%20%20Unit%2052A%20AQA%20Physics%20Alevel.pdf
mark scheme
question 2
very simple question why is the change in wavlength not 656.05  656.52? instead.
The difference being in the mark...
Problem Statement: When I can observe the orbit of visual binary,How can I determine the inclination degree??
Relevant Equations: Keplar's low??
But now, we know the distance to the binary(45.9pc), and viewing radius(1.2mas).
The following is a clientside C# code:
string Host = "localhost";
int Port = 2000;
TcpClient Tcp = new TcpClient(Host, Port);
NetworkStream stream = Tcp.GetStream();
reader = new BinaryReader(stream);
writer = new BinaryWriter(stream);
writer.Write("Hello");
string str =...
Distance is d=1/0.07 = 14.3 parsecs
The Doppler shift of one star is, Δλ = 512  512.04 = 0.04
So the radical of the velocity of the star is = (0.04/512) x (3.00 x 10^5 km/s) = 23.4km/s which is the same for both stars because they have the same mass.
This is as far as I've got.
Hi,
I have provided a procedure for broadcast for BBT at the following link:
https://cs.stackexchange.com/questions/106631/alltoallbroadcastonabalancedbinarytree
But I am not getting the correct time as asked in the question:
Required Timing equation is: ##(t_s + t_w * m* p/2)logp##...
Homework Statement
How many bit strings of length eight contain either three
consecutive 0s or four consecutive 1s?
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
This might sound dumb, but would the eight bit string of all zeros satisfy the conditions on the question? I understand its asking for...
I have been attempting to open up files on NASA’s GRS and neutron data,
http://pdsgeosciences.wustl.edu/missions/messenger/grs_edr.html
but have been running into some roadblocks. The data is all stored in .dat IEEE binary format (which IEEE format they do not specify in their documentation...
Hi,
This is not homework. I need to understand why the binary number system works in the case of a particular problem.
While trying to solve the puzzle below, I set out to finding the minimum number of denominations required to create a particular amount. To create any amount up to $15, I just...
Homework Statement
Shown is two binary numbers adding with the answer
The Attempt at a Solution
Looking at the end side 1.1+1.1, shouldn't that be 11.00... instead of 10.00...
Hello All,
Wanted to see if I am approaching this problem correctly, I have an exam coming up and am pretty sure something like this will show up.
Examine the phase diagram (phase.jpg) with a 20WT% A and 80WT%B which is allowed to cool slowly from liquid
A) what temp does the first solid...
Binary search works by eliminating half of the objects in a sorted array every time,so shouldn’t it’s time complexity being ##O(\log_2 n)## instead of ##O(\log n)##?
Homework Statement
Using 8 bit representation , subtract the unsigned binary numbers shown by each of the following methods ;
101012  10112
1) Binary subtraction
2) 2's complement
Homework Equations

The Attempt at a Solution
Using binary subtraction :
101012  10112 = 0000 10102
Using 2's...
Hello,
is everything binary on macroscopic level ?
I know on quantum level there are multiple states, instead of binary.
I can't find any studies, it seems like everything is binary on macro level, lightdark, deathlife...
So what would be opposite of iron, or wood, for example ? I can't think...
Let ##G = \{x \in \mathbb{R} ~: 0 \le x < 1 \}##. Let ##x, y \in G##.I have to determine whether ##x \cdot y = x + y  \lfloor x + y \rfloor## is welldefined. However, it seems obvious. Since addition, subtraction, and the floor function are all welldefined functions in and of themselves...
In binary phase diagram, We draw a tie line to know the composition of the liquid phase or the solid phase. Where the tie line is just a horizontal line.
The question is why doesn't the liquid or solid phase composition change as you change the general composition of the alloy? Why does the...