What is Binary: Definition and 603 Discussions

A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter. Systems of two or more stars are called multiple star systems. These systems, especially when more distant, often appear to the unaided eye as a single point of light, and are then revealed as multiple by other means.
The term double star is often used synonymously with binary star; however, double star can also mean optical double star. Optical doubles are so called because the two stars appear close together in the sky as seen from the Earth; they are almost on the same line of sight. Nevertheless, their "doubleness" depends only on this optical effect; the stars themselves are distant from one another and share no physical connection. A double star can be revealed as optical by means of differences in their parallax measurements, proper motions, or radial velocities. Most known double stars have not been studied adequately to determine whether they are optical doubles or doubles physically bound through gravitation into a multiple star system.
Binary star systems are very important in astrophysics because calculations of their orbits allow the masses of their component stars to be directly determined, which in turn allows other stellar parameters, such as radius and density, to be indirectly estimated. This also determines an empirical mass-luminosity relationship (MLR) from which the masses of single stars can be estimated.
Binary stars are often resolved as separate stars, in which case they are called visual binaries. Many visual binaries have long orbital periods of several centuries or millennia and therefore have orbits which are uncertain or poorly known. They may also be detected by indirect techniques, such as spectroscopy (spectroscopic binaries) or astrometry (astrometric binaries). If a binary star happens to orbit in a plane along our line of sight, its components will eclipse and transit each other; these pairs are called eclipsing binaries, or, together with other binaries that change brightness as they orbit, photometric binaries.
If components in binary star systems are close enough they can gravitationally distort their mutual outer stellar atmospheres. In some cases, these close binary systems can exchange mass, which may bring their evolution to stages that single stars cannot attain. Examples of binaries are Sirius, and Cygnus X-1 (Cygnus X-1 being a well-known black hole). Binary stars are also common as the nuclei of many planetary nebulae, and are the progenitors of both novae and type Ia supernovae.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. P3dr0

    A Non-sinusoidal waveform model

    Hi, I am a ninth-grade student from Portugal with nothing to do, and I have decided that I want to build a simple regression algorithm in Desmos (the online calculator) to fit random binary inputs and maybe predict the next binary digits (although that part may take a considerable amount of...
  2. R

    B Binary variables (Absolute values)

    Hello, According to https://www.fico.com/fico-xpress-optimization/docs/latest/mipform/dhtml/chap2s1.html?scroll=ssecabsval the formula for absolute values are : y = | x1 - x2| for two variables x1, x2 with 0 ≤ xi ≤ U Introduce binary variables d1, d2 to mean d1 : 1 if x1 - x2 is the positive...
  3. Malapine

    Habitable planet at L4/L5 of binary gas giants?

    Would it be plausible to have two gas giants orbiting each other, a few million km apart, with a terrestrial planet at their mutual L4 or L5 point so that they both appear as visible disks fixed in the sky? Or would the terrestrial planet not be stable there and end up ejected?
  4. Mayhem

    B Operator that returns unique number of binary matrix

    If we have an arbitrary square matrix populated randomly with 1s and 0s, is there an operator which will return a unique number for each configuration of 1s and 0s in the matrix? i.e. an operation on $$ \begin{pmatrix} 1 &0 &0 \\ 1 & 0 & 1\\ 0 & 1 & 0 \end{pmatrix} $$ would return something...
  5. PhysicsRock

    Binary operation on equivalence classes

    So, my approach and solution are as follows: $$ [x * y] = \{ z \in M : z \sim (x * y) \} $$ Since we know that ##a * b \sim a^{\prime} * b^{\prime}## we can rewrite ##z## as ## x^{\prime} * y^{\prime} ##. Plugging this in yields: $$ [x * y] = \{ x^{\prime}, y^{\prime} \in M : x^{\prime} *...
  6. V

    Comp Sci Binary Encoding for 16 Bit Architecture

    In class we were given the example of a 32-bit architecture, so the opcode has 5 bits, register A had four bits, register B had four bits, the destination register had 4 bits and the offset was 15 bits, this was how it was done for "add" instruction. But when I was further reading about it...
  7. Sciencemaster

    I Database of binary star data info within 10 PC of Earth

    I'm looking for a database of binary stars within 10 PC of Earth, including information such as eccentricity of orbits, their distance from one another, etc. I'm hoping to find a list with this information, or just a collection of pages with this information. I've tried Simbad but I can't find...
  8. V

    Comp Sci Digitial Logic and Binary Counter

    1 000 0 1 000 0 0 001 1 0 001 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 On the left is my input, in the middle is my output and on the right is the decimal. 0 000 0 0 000 0 1 001 1 0 001 1 1 010 2 Here is another example I was studying where the input is 00101 and I...
  9. Rikudo

    Fictitious force in a binary stars

    I have a difficulty in understanding the question. Fictitious force is a force whose motion is described using a non-inertial frame of reference. Which frame is the question referring to?
  10. M

    Use the binary exponentiation algorithm to compute....

    First, consider ## 19^{53}\pmod {503} ##. Then ## 53=(110101)_{2}=2^{5}+2^{4}+2^{2}+1=32+16+4+1 ##. Note that \begin{align*} 19^{2}\equiv 361\pmod {503}\\ 19^{4}\equiv 44\pmod {503}\\ 19^{8}\equiv 427\pmod {503}\\ 19^{16}\equiv 243\pmod {503}\\ 19^{32}\equiv 198\pmod {503}.\\ \end{align*} Thus...
  11. karush

    MHB V16 composite binary operater

    define the binary operater $\diamond$ by $a\diamond b$=4a+4b and $s\square b$ by $a\square b=a^2+b^2$ find $(3\diamond 8)\square 2= [(4(3)+4(8))^2 +2^2]=1940$ ok just want to see if this is correct before i run thru the ribbon :unsure:
  12. karush

    MHB What is the Binary Operator $\oplus$ and its Significance?

    define the binary operater $\oplus$ by a$\oplus$b=4ab find a. $9\oplus 3$=4(9)(3)=108 b. $2\oplus 2$=4(2)(2)=16 c. $3\oplus 9$=4(3)(9)=108 d. $g\oplus h$=4(g)(h)=4gh ok that was too simple must be doing something wrong what is the significance lf $\oplus$
  13. A

    B Mass transfer between neutron stars in a binary pair

    When we read about the mass transfer between neutron star pairs in a binary system, how is it that the one receiving the matter can increase its spin rate. Adding mass to a spinning object ought to slow due to conservation of momentum. Where does the energy come from?
  14. Arman777

    Understanding the binary transformation of strings and integers

    For fun, I have decided to implement a simple XOR encryption algorithm. The first step is to convert messages into bytes to perform XOR operation on each bit. The problem has started here. For instance, I want to encrypt this message. I hiked 24 miles. Now I need to turn this text into binary...
  15. B

    Why are structs used for linked lists and classes used for binary trees?

    Why are struct use for linked list and classes used for binary tree. honestly what is the different between a class and a struct? I have a teacher one tell me that a class was a struct on steroids. but what does that really mean ?
  16. Amathproblem22

    MHB Question: Binary & Hexadecimal

    I don't need help with a problem just help with easy ways of tackling the problems. Below are my current methods. (Hopefully, all is correct I was in a rush). Binary to Decimal: 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 I already know 128+64+32= 224 so then 16+1=17, meaning 224+17=241...
  17. lomidrevo

    I Gravitational Waves Emitted by a Binary System

    Let's assume a binary system with an inclination angle ##i## (angle between the orbital plane and line of sight). Then, according to this source - equations (128) and (129) - for the amplitudes of the tensor polarization modes ("plus": ##+## and "cross": ##\times## polarization) I could write...
  18. norobinhood

    Is it ever possible we could do better than binary for computers

    hi there I wish to discuss possible ways we could one day come up with a programming code that is even better than binary? i would like to discuss ideas openly? anyone got ideas? i have some if anyone wishes to discuss possible ways? never / no / yes
  19. S

    Converting State Vectors to Keplerian Orbital Elements for Binary Objects

    Homework Statement:: I'm working on a personal project to convert objects from a simulation using state vectors for position and velocity to Keplerian orbital elements (semimajor axis, eccentricity, argument of periapsis, etc.). However, the equations I am using do not calculate the...
  20. S

    I Is there a theorem that a set of binary swaps can affect any permutation?

    Is there a theorem that states that a set of binary swaps can result in any permutation? For example, the original set (1,2,3,4,5) can have the swap (24) and result in (1,4,3,2,5). is there a set of specific swaps for each net result permutation?
  21. A

    An array problem involving a recursive binary search

    Summary:: I have to solve this problem stirctly according to the question that follows: Mentor note: I edited the original code to add indentation and a few blank lines to make the code more readable, so line 43 is no longer the line in question. so this is the question i tried but it gives...
  22. T

    B Measuring distance between two stars in a binary system

    Hello I am trying to teach myself some basic maths for astronomy from a book, namely trying to calculate the distance between two stars in a binary system. One thing i am confused with is what angular separation means and how it can be translated to true physical distance between them using...
  23. Y

    Are Binary Files and Text Files the Same?

    I have been studying binary files, my main textbook is not very clear, the other 3 books are useless. I went on line and read a lot of articles. I want to run it by you guys whether I am correct or not: 1) Binary files are written in binary or Hex( same to me that read 4 binary as each hex)...
  24. D

    I Remains of collapsed stars as touching binary planets?

    Would it be in any way physically possible for a binary star system to evaporate / explode, leaving behind two spheres of a solid metal such as gold (or an alloy), which were then rigid enough to drift together and maintain their shapes, rather than just collapsing into a larger sphere? And...
  25. Kate_C

    B Question re binary star systems & possible orbits

    From what I gather, there are S-type, P-type & T-type systems, but I'm having a hard time wrapping my mind around the orbital possibilities. Would it be theoretically possible to have a planet in a binary star system where there is a daily "pre-sunrise" and a "pre (or post) sunset" due to the...
  26. Addez123

    Probability of receiving a binary one

    $$P(A|B) = P(A \cap B) / P(A)$$ $$P(A) = \text{Chance of 1 being received} = .4 * .98 + .6 * .01 = .398$$ $$P(A \cap B) = \text{Chance 1 being sent and 1 being received} = .4 * .98 = .392$$ $$P(A|B) = P(A \cap B) / P(A) = .392 / .398 = .985$$ The correct answer is 147/148 ~= .9932 What am I...
  27. A

    Help on how to find stellar radius with an eclipsing binary system

    My best guess right now is use Newton's version of Kepler's 3rd Law to maybe find a combined mass, as I'm under the impression that the smaller star's mass would still be too large to ignore, but I'm not confident. And I wouldn't be sure as where t go from their, either. Any guidance would be...
  28. Dada

    I How to Convert a Binary Number to 6 Significant figures

    1203.201 which is 0100|1011|0011.0011|0011 How to round the binary representation to 6 significant figures and 12 significant figures? And what is the rounding rule for base 2? If it was rounded to 6 significant figure, such as 0100|10 {2}, then it changes its initial value, doesn't it? So...
  29. R

    Engineering Creating a decoder (Graycode to Binary) using 4 nands

    These are the two questions.Here's a datasheet for the demux I've been using: https://ecee.colorado.edu/~mcclurel/sn74ls138rev5.pdf Here's my work: If you need to see how I got these sum functions, here's the work for that: Now, if you look at the datasheet for the demux (linked above), you'll...
  30. R

    Engineering Simple Binary Subtraction Question

    Problem shown above. Work shown below. My question is, at the final step, is this a negative one? I can't borrow from anything as there are no more 1's. The solution I've found online just puts a 1 out front without a minus sign and it says it borrowed a 1 to do this, but I don't know where...
  31. chemisthypnos

    Trying to build a miniature binary geothermal plant for education

    I am trying to build a miniature (it should fit on a desk) binary geothermal power plant for educational purposes. I obviously do not expect to drill into the ground with this power plant, but I hope to be able to demonstrate new design principles with it. I have many questions as to how to do...
  32. K

    Mass Transfer in a Binary Star System

    Homework Statement: A binary star system consists of M1 and M2 separated by a distance D. M1 and M2 are revolving with an angular velocity w in circular orbits about their common center of mass. Mass is continuously being transferred from one star to the other. This transfer of mass causes...
  33. caters

    What is the period of this binary orbit?

    Okay, so let's simplify things and look at the ideal case, where the 2 masses are the same. Well, this gives us a sine wave pattern to the orbital velocity. Consequently, the acceleration would follow a cosine wave since the derivative of velocity is acceleration and the derivative of sine is...
  34. B

    Astrophysics question about a binary star system (AQA exam)

    https://pmt.physicsandmathstutor.com/download/Physics/A-level/Past-Papers/AQA-Old/Unit-5/June%202015%20MS%20-%20Unit%205-2A%20AQA%20Physics%20A-level.pdf mark scheme question 2 very simple question why is the change in wavlength not 656.05 - 656.52? instead. The difference being in the mark...
  35. arcTomato

    How can I determine the inclination degree? (visual binary)

    Problem Statement: When I can observe the orbit of visual binary,How can I determine the inclination degree?? Relevant Equations: Keplar's low?? But now, we know the distance to the binary(45.9pc), and viewing radius(1.2mas).
  36. user366312

    C# How to send a binary stream from Java-client to C#-server via Tcp?

    The following is a client-side C# code: string Host = "localhost"; int Port = 2000; TcpClient Tcp = new TcpClient(Host, Port); NetworkStream stream = Tcp.GetStream(); reader = new BinaryReader(stream); writer = new BinaryWriter(stream); writer.Write("Hello"); string str =...
  37. T

    Binary System in circular orbit: Separation distance between stars

    Distance is d=1/0.07 = 14.3 parsecs The Doppler shift of one star is, Δλ = 512 - 512.04 = -0.04 So the radical of the velocity of the star is = (-0.04/512) x (3.00 x 10^5 km/s) = 23.4km/s which is the same for both stars because they have the same mass. This is as far as I've got.
  38. Z

    Calculate the time of an all-to-all broadcast for a balanced binary tree (BBT)

    Hi, I have provided a procedure for broadcast for BBT at the following link: https://cs.stackexchange.com/questions/106631/all-to-all-broadcast-on-a-balanced-binary-tree But I am not getting the correct time as asked in the question: Required Timing equation is: ##(t_s + t_w * m* p/2)logp##...
  39. R

    Help me understand this question -- "Three consecutive zeros" in a binary string

    Homework Statement How many bit strings of length eight contain either three consecutive 0s or four consecutive 1s? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution This might sound dumb, but would the eight bit string of all zeros satisfy the conditions on the question? I understand its asking for...
  40. mesa

    Having a difficult time with binary IEEE .dat file

    I have been attempting to open up files on NASA’s GRS and neutron data, http://pds-geosciences.wustl.edu/missions/messenger/grs_edr.html but have been running into some roadblocks. The data is all stored in .dat IEEE binary format (which IEEE format they do not specify in their documentation...
  41. M

    Why am I encountering the binary system in this problem?

    Hi, This is not homework. I need to understand why the binary number system works in the case of a particular problem. While trying to solve the puzzle below, I set out to finding the minimum number of denominations required to create a particular amount. To create any amount up to $15, I just...
  42. nothing909

    Binary Addition: How to Add Binary Numbers with Examples

    Homework Statement Shown is two binary numbers adding with the answer The Attempt at a Solution Looking at the end side 1.1+1.1, shouldn't that be 11.00... instead of 10.00...
  43. cookiemnstr510510

    Reading a Binary Phase Diagram (lever rule etc.)

    Hello All, Wanted to see if I am approaching this problem correctly, I have an exam coming up and am pretty sure something like this will show up. Examine the phase diagram (phase.jpg) with a 20WT% A and 80WT%B which is allowed to cool slowly from liquid A) what temp does the first solid...
  44. YoungPhysicist

    Time complexity of a binary search

    Binary search works by eliminating half of the objects in a sorted array every time,so shouldn’t it’s time complexity being ##O(\log_2 n)## instead of ##O(\log n)##?
  45. F

    Subtracting unsigned binary numbers using two methods

    Homework Statement Using 8 bit representation , subtract the unsigned binary numbers shown by each of the following methods ; 101012 - 10112 1) Binary subtraction 2) 2's complement Homework Equations - The Attempt at a Solution Using binary subtraction : 101012 - 10112 = 0000 10102 Using 2's...
  46. DarkStar42

    I Would Newton's shell theorem prevent binary planet systems?

    Would the shell theorem prevent a binary planet system, with two ideally equal masses, structure etc?
  47. E

    B Is everything binary on macroscopic level

    Hello, is everything binary on macroscopic level ? I know on quantum level there are multiple states, instead of binary. I can't find any studies, it seems like everything is binary on macro level, light-dark, death-life... So what would be opposite of iron, or wood, for example ? I can't think...
  48. Mr Davis 97

    I Showing that a binary operation is well-defined

    Let ##G = \{x \in \mathbb{R} ~: 0 \le x < 1 \}##. Let ##x, y \in G##.I have to determine whether ##x \cdot y = x + y - \lfloor x + y \rfloor## is well-defined. However, it seems obvious. Since addition, subtraction, and the floor function are all well-defined functions in and of themselves...
  49. Biker

    Liquid-solid phase composition: Binary phase diagrams

    In binary phase diagram, We draw a tie line to know the composition of the liquid phase or the solid phase. Where the tie line is just a horizontal line. The question is why doesn't the liquid or solid phase composition change as you change the general composition of the alloy? Why does the...