Distance is a function of nozzle velocity and jet stability.
So a small nozzle will project a fine jet a long distance, but if you want bulk water flow you will need a larger nozzle.
Putting a spin at the nozzle exit will increase jet stability.
When you have selected your nozzle then you need a pump to deliver the mass flow desired. Benoullis equation will allow you to match the maximum system pressure at any point to the maximum mass flow.
In general pick a pump that pumps a lot of water through a large orifice and then throttle it down to a small nozzle.
Remember to work out the power required to move that much water as well, otherwise your batteries will run flat before you get the system up to pressure.