This may not be the best place to ask something like this, but I want to know how website security systems work. I dont have any malicious intent. Its just that cryptography interests me. How does encoding/decoding data over the net work?
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Most IP encryption techniques have at their heart asymmetrical key encryption. IPsec uses symmetrical keys to encrypt the packet payload, however the key exchange uses asymmetrical encryption, via the Diffie-Hellman technique.
As for malicious intent, all encryption techniques are open standards, and can be read up on via the IETF web site . They are tested continuously, and as the protocols are cracked, they are updated. A good example of this is MD5 which was broken, and SHA-1 came about.