I recently read the published article: Stuart Hameroff, How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will. Front Integr Neurosci. 2012; 6: 93. PMCID: PMC3470100 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3470100/ From this it seems that current neuroscience views consciousness as an emergent phenomenon. The alternate stance proposed by Hameroff and other proponents of a quantum mechanics (QM) version of consciousness is that the brain acts to amplify quantum effects. Clearly it is not known at this stage if QM is required to explain consciousness or not. From this article, and others not referenced, it seems there are two opposing viewpoints: 1) That consciousness may be an emergent phenomena. or 2) That consciousness is an amplified quantum effect (i.e. macroscopic; amplify quantum effects into particular classical states) , such as seen in lasers or liquid helium whose unique behavior is critically dependent on QM. My question is: What is the difference between emergence, and amplification of QM effects? Would not the amplification of QM effects be an emergent property? Thank-you!