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A wave pattern forms on an exhaust plume. The wave is reflected back and forth between the fluid jet boundary, forming oblique shocks which resemble diamonds.

Scenario 2: Traffic Jams on an open highway

While driving on the interstate traffic comes to a halt or a slow down, then it picks up again, then slows back down. Forming a pattern. ----- - - ----- - - ----- - - (something like that, I would imagine).

I was told these two patterns can be found using the same equation or explained using the same equation (not necessarily found). And I cannot for the life of me locate what equation these could be.

Any help on what topic to look under or the equation itself would be nice.