# Newbie question about step down voltage

## Main Question or Discussion Point

I need to step down 12vac to 9vac.
The details.
I am making colloidal silver.
I have a 12vac 2amp timer that switches polarity between the two silver rods every 2 mins.
12v to the silver rods is a bit much. 9v would make a better product.
So what is the simple way to do this, and still allow for the polarity to switch?
I know how to solder, and can tell a hot wire from a ground. That's about as far as my electrical knowledge goes, so please keep it simple for me.
Sorry for my ignorance on this subject.

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mfb
Mentor
If you don't care about the energy cost and if the current through your material is constant, you can put a resistor in series. Not very elegant, but very easy. Multiple diodes would also work (use them in pairs to allow both current directions) and they are more stable in terms of voltage drop.

Would you recommend a particular resistor? As well, since it reverses polarity, should I put them (it) on both wires going to the rods? Keeping in mind that the rods are suspended in water and not physically connected. I have a local Radio Shack that I can go to. Thanks.

mfb
Mentor
The resistor should be rated for the expected power value and have the right resistance value of course, everything else does not matter. It also does not matter on which side you put it into the circuit.
Keeping in mind that the rods are suspended in water and not physically connected.
The rods are connected to your power supply. And the water connection is like a resistor as well.

So when the polarity switches to the side without the resistor the rod will only get 9v from the 12v source?

mfb
Mentor
The resistor is always in series with the cell, so it will always reduce the voltage applied to the cell. Resistors do not care about the direction of current.

It does not make sense to say "the polarity switches to this side" - the voltage is always applied between the two sides, so everything that changes is the direction of current and voltage.

I think I get it. So even if I only have one resistor on one side it will only allow a certain amount of voltage to complete the circuit no matter what direction the flow is?
I have tried this before on my setup and it seems that one rod without the resistor will produce lots of silver into the water and the other one with the resistor does not. Without any resistor they produce the same amount as the polarity flips. I mean to say the rods take "turns" producing silver into the water as the polarity switches. Curious. That's why i'm here. lol.
I really appreciate your time on this btw.

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mfb
Mentor
I think I get it. So even if I only have one resistor on one side it will only allow a certain amount of voltage to complete the circuit no matter what direction the flow is?
It won't act as a fixed voltage limit, but it will always reduce the voltage applied to your cell, independent of the current direction.
I have tried this before on my setup and it seems that one rod without the resistor will produce lots of silver into the water and the other one with the resistor does not.
Then something else is wrong.

I think I've got it.
You said the water acts like a resistor. That makes sense.
Taking into account that the silver rods take "turns" producing silver as the polarity switches, this means that the rod that is getting the full or "hot" flow of current is dumping it's energy into the water and the other rod is not fully completing the circuit. An "anode, cathode" thing here. One sending and one receiving voltage. One will have a buildup of silver particles on the rod while the other does not. I want to avoid that. This is why I make the polarity switch every couple of mins. That solved that problem.
So by putting a resistor on both legs of the circuit I should achieve a balance of power to both rods. Hence, a step down from 12v to 9v.
So my assumption is that I need a 3v resistor on both legs or wires going to the rods?
I will try this and report back with my results, unless others have some input as well.

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So what do you think?

NascentOxygen
Staff Emeritus
So my assumption is that I need a 3v resistor on both legs or wires going to the rods?
Dividing your resistance into 2 separate resistors will make not a jot of difference in a series circuit like this.

I suspect the timer switching every 2 minutes may have been implemented with DC in mind? It will achieve nothing different to were it not present when you are using AC. What is your source of 12V AC?

What do you dissolve in the water to make it conductive before hanging the rods in it?

Do you have a web link to point to where you are following some instructions?

dlgoff
Gold Member
I think there may be a misunderstanding with what you mean by "switches polarity". Do you mean switch power from one rod to the other every 2 minutes like this not so good paint picture where only one resistor is required?

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mfb
Mentor
full or "hot" flow of current [...]One sending and one receiving voltage.
That does not make sense.

So my assumption is that I need a 3v resistor on both legs or wires going to the rods?
There is no "3V resistor". The voltage drop at the resistor will depend on the current. Which current do you have in your setup?

My setup is very basic.
I have a polarity switch with variable timing plugged into my wall outlet at my house. The adapter for the timer DOES convert AC to DC as the timer is a DC unit. Sorry for leaving that out. I imagine that point might be important.
This polarity switch will run a standard motor in forward then reverse depending on the time I have set for it to do so. I tested this.
There are 2 leads from the switch that go to each silver rod suspended in water.
I used to hook up a standard 9v battery to make the silver solution. I noticed that only one rod would produce unless I turned the plug on the battery around. At that point the other rod would produce.
I use distilled water, so the process takes some time to get going. I usually spike the water with silver solution to get the ball rolling faster.

This is the polarity timer/switch. The output is 12.3vdc. I need to get that output to the rods down to 9v.

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NascentOxygen
Staff Emeritus
And the outcome being that after some hours you end up with a tiny pile of silver "dust" under one rod? Is that it? While your reversing timer may well evenly share the effort between the rods, you may just end up getting half as much silver from each, so no net gain? Was this something you devised, or is it standard recommended practice? Does one rod liberate a white fog of miniscule bubbles into the water---if so, then indeed periodic reversal is a good technique.

The best way to drop the voltage from 12.3V to 9V here is not with a resistor, but with a couple of rectifier diodes. You'll need 4 or 5 diodes, the type you would buy to make a low voltage power supply. Rated at 50V or 100V and 1 amp will be good and robust. Connect them in series, and place them in one of the leads where polarity does not reverse. Measure the voltage across the silver rods to see how close to 9V it becomes. Each diode loses about 0.7V at low current. These are better than a resistor here.

Can you explain how you concluded that it will perform better with 9V? What probem are you seeing the 12.3V cause?

NascentOxygen.. You pretty much hit the nail on the head in your first paragraph. If I don't reverse polarity I end up with globs of unusable silver dust that attach themselves to one rod.
On the other hand you recommend to place the diodes in one of the leads that does not reverse polarity. They both reverse polarity.
As for 9v being better than 12v, the more the voltage the bigger the molecules of silver comes off the rods. 9v tends to create smaller molecules that are more useful. 1v would be the best but it would take a year to make a batch. 9v tends to be the standard in the DIY realm.
Maybe the simplest way to accomplish my goal is to contact the person who made the switch and ask him to make one in 9v. I was hoping not to have to do that.

NascentOxygen
Staff Emeritus
Back in post #2 in this thread, mfb pointed out you can pair each diode with a parallel one that's reversed then it will conduct in both directions, showing 0.7v drop regardless of current reversals. So you need 8 to 10 diodes now. Almost any sort will do, I just recommended power diodes because they have stronger leads and are more likely to survive an accidental touching of the silver rods! Open up the power supply from a junked VCR or desktop computer box and you'll see big diodes you can carefully salvage using a pair of sidecutters. (First short out big capacitors in case they have held a charge, if recently used. Make sure it's unplugged from the mains!!) Don't bother trying to straighten out the leads of diode you salvage, more bending can weaken them. Just solder them into two strings, one going one way, the other in the reverse. Good luck!

We'll recognize you as the blue-skinned guy who doesn't suffer from winter colds & flu??

NascentOxygen
Staff Emeritus
Have you tried hanging 6 or 7 rods in the one jar and powering all in series? Use something inert to keep them from touching, and I think you'll put 3 times as much silver in solution for no extra time or effort. The 12.3v may be a perfect match for half a dozen rods!

You didn't answer my Q as to whether in operation a stream of white gas can be seen drifting away from either electrode?

mfb
Mentor
Have you tried hanging 6 or 7 rods in the one jar and powering all in series?
I'm not sure if it would work within the same jar.
Using two sets in different jars in series should certainly work, but current would go down, so the silver output would not increase.

NascentOxygen
Staff Emeritus
Yes, multiple rods in parallel in the one jar might be better.It could be kept compact.

Back in post #2 in this thread, mfb pointed out you can pair each diode with a parallel one that's reversed then it will conduct in both directions, showing 0.7v drop regardless of current reversals.)

We'll recognize you as the blue-skinned guy who doesn't suffer from winter colds & flu??
You said......you can pair each diode with a parallel one that's reversed then it will conduct in both directions, showing 0.7v drop regardless of current reversals.)
Can you please give me a drawing of that using my crude hand drawing picture from above. That sounds reasonable, I just need to see it.
As far as the "blue skinned guy" is concerned, there has been about 15 cases of that in the U.S. and that is due to bad production practice and oral overdosage. Still a funny statement. Made me laugh. :) One should only use this when one is getting sick. Those blue skinned ppl were drinking cups of poorly made colloidal silver every day.
As well, a stream of wispy white clouds can be seen emanating from the rods, one at a time as the polarity is switched.

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mfb
Mentor
Can you please give me a drawing of that using my crude hand drawing picture from above. That sounds reasonable, I just need to see it.