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If we consider E and B individually, there are 6 total degrees of freedom.

But they are actually related to each other by Maxwell's equations.

So we can find potentials and reduce dof to 4; 3 in vector potential and 1 in scalar potential.

Thus, there remain 2 redundant dof.

This is the problem...

I think

For example, the vector potential has gauge symmetry, A' = A + del (f)

f is scalar and has one dof.

Am I understanding right ?

But they are actually related to each other by Maxwell's equations.

So we can find potentials and reduce dof to 4; 3 in vector potential and 1 in scalar potential.

Thus, there remain 2 redundant dof.

This is the problem...

I think

__one of them gives the polarization of EM wave and the other gives the gauge symmetry.__For example, the vector potential has gauge symmetry, A' = A + del (f)

f is scalar and has one dof.

Am I understanding right ?

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