# Solving for the Roots of Z^5 = -1

• w3390
In summary, the equation Z^5 = -1 has five roots when expressed in the form Ae^(i*delta). To find these roots, we first use the hint to express -1 in this form, which gives us a value for theta of any odd integer multiple of pi. Then, using the property of exponents, we find complex numbers that, when raised to the fifth power, give us the same value for theta. After converting these complex numbers back to Cartesian form, we find that there are only five unique values, which are the five roots we were looking for.
w3390

## Homework Statement

Z^5 = -1

What are the five roots?

## The Attempt at a Solution

I do not know how to start this problem. I am given a hint to put -1 into the form Ae^(i*delta), but I am unsure as to how I can do that. Any help would be much appreciated.

Use
$$e^{ix}=\cos x+i\sin x$$

Ya, I know. That was the hint I was given. However, I don't know exactly how to apply it in this situation. How do I get five roots from that equation?

$$-1=\cos x+i\sin x\Rightarrow \cos x =-1 \quad \sin x =0.$$
What could x be?

hunt_mat said:
Use
$$e^{ix}=\cos x+i\sin x$$

he could also use

z = x + iy

z^5 = x^5 ... iy^5
(fill in the rest)

to remove the theta

X could be any odd integer multiple of pi (i.e. pi, 3pi, 5pi, 7pi...). Is that what you are talking about?

Almost, not any odd integer of pi, but a specific one.

I'm sorry. I don't see why it has to be a specific one. All of those work so how do I know which particular one is correct?

There is another way too.
$$r^{5}e^{5 thetha } = e^{i \pi + 2n \pi}$$

This way you can get all the values of for the angle from a " formula".

So:

-1 + i*0 = cos(x) + i*sin(x)

Therefore:

cos(x) = -1

sin(x) = 0

To satisfy both these conditions, X can be any odd integer multiple of pi.

cos(n*pi) = -1 for n= 1, 3, 5, 7, ...

sin(n*pi) = 0 for n= 1, 3, 5, 7, ...I don't see how there can be a single specific answer.

I also don't understand where I am going to get five roots from.

w3390 said:
So:

-1 + i*0 = cos(x) + i*sin(x)

Therefore:

cos(x) = -1

sin(x) = 0

To satisfy both these conditions, X can be any odd integer multiple of pi.

cos(n*pi) = -1 for n= 1, 3, 5, 7, ...

sin(n*pi) = 0 for n= 1, 3, 5, 7, ...I don't see how there can be a single specific answer.

I also don't understand where I am going to get five roots from.
You are correct.

$$cosx = -1 \Rightarrow x = \pi +2n\pi$$

$$x = \pi +2n\pi$$

Now that you have
$$-1 = e^{i \left(\pi + 2n \pi \right)}$$

You also have $$r^{5}e^{i5 \theta } = e^{i \left(\pi + 2n \pi \right)}$$

What is r and theta ?
$$r = ?$$
$$\theta = ?$$

What the other posters have been trying to guide you through is a two-step process. The first step is to find a way to express -1 in the form $re^{i\theta}$ - that is, what values of r and θ will make the expression $re^{i\theta}$ equal to -1? For this part, you use Euler's identity,
$$e^{i\theta} = \cos\theta + i\sin\theta$$
As you have found, there is not just one solution for θ, but a whole infinite sequence.

Once you've found the value(s) of r and θ that correspond to -1, the second part of the problem will be to figure out what complex numbers to the fifth power equal -1. You can use the usual property of exponents,
$$(a^b)^c = a^{bc}$$
Since you have an infinite set of possible values for θ for -1, go through them one by one and for each one, find the complex number (in polar form) that, when raised to the fifth power, gives you your r times e for that θ. Obviously you cannot do the entire infinite sequence, but do enough of them to see the pattern.

After you're done with that, if you convert the complex numbers you found from polar form back to Cartesian form (x+ iy), you should find that there are only five different values. Those are the roots you're looking for.

Okay, thanks for the explanation diazona. However, let me show you my thought process.

So I have already found that when theta=pi, 3pi, 5pi, 7pi, ... ; e^(i*theta) will equal -1.

I also think that the only possible value for r is 1.

So then you say I need to find what complex numbers when raised to the fifth power give me -1.

So, (e^(i*theta))^5 = e^(i*5*theta).

My question is regarding the previous step. If I am to plug in all the possible values of theta (pi, 3pi, 5pi, 7pi, ...) then when I multiply by five I will still get an odd multiple of pi and it will always result in -1.

Either you don't need my help or you don't want to listen( or read) to me.

I would take the former as the case.

Actually it's neither of those. Since I don't know how to do this, I can't just look at an equation and know how to navigate my way to the final answer.

Yes, I see your equation: (r^5)(e^(i*5*theta))=-1

This works when r=1 and theta=pi so this is one solution.

This also works when r=-1 and theta=0 so this is a solution.

What I was getting at was do I need 5 unique r values and 5 unique theta values because it also works when r=-1 and theta=2pi.

w3390 said:
Actually it's neither of those. Since I don't know how to do this, I can't just look at an equation and know how to navigate my way to the final answer.

Yes, I see your equation: (r^5)(e^(i*5*theta))=-1

This works when r=1 and theta=pi so this is one solution.

This also works when r=-1 and theta=0 so this is a solution.

What I was getting at was do I need 5 unique r values and 5 unique theta values because it also works when r=-1 and theta=2pi.

Good. You get the general idea.

Look at this
$$r^{5}e^{i5 \theta } = e^{i \left(\pi + 2n \pi \right)}$$

So far you have deduced that
$$r= 1$$

We see that
$$1^{5}e^{i5 \theta } = e^{i \left(\pi + 2n \pi \right)}$$
$$e^{i5 \theta } = e^{i \left(\pi + 2n \pi \right)}$$

This means

$$5 \theta = \pi + 2n \pi$$

Can you solve for theta and then try n = 0 ,1, 2,3,4 ?

What values do you get for theta?

Actually, I forgot to point out that r is defined to be positive.

So you can't pick r = -1.

Solving for theta and plugging in n=0,1,2,3...

I get:

theta = (1/5)*pi
theta = (3/5)*pi
theta = (5/5)*pi
theta = (7/5)*pi

w3390 said:
Solving for theta and plugging in n=0,1,2,3...

I get:

theta = (1/5)*pi
theta = (3/5)*pi
theta = (5/5)*pi
theta = (7/5)*pi

Correct.

You are missing n=4.

Anyway, what you have here are the arguments of complex numbers which are all roots of -1 .

To see this

$$\left(e^{\frac{i\pi}{5}}\right)^{5} = e^{i\pi} =-1$$

And so on...

Okay, I see it now. Ya, I forgot n=4. I see what you mean about only having 5 answers because when n=5 it just cycles back around to (1/5)*pi.

Thank you so much for your patience. I'm sure this was very frustrating for you.

Yes, it's just as you say; it cycles back.

Not at all.

I myself had a hard time understanding why a single "number" would have 5 roots when I was introduced to the idea.

## 1. How do you solve for the roots of Z^5 = -1?

To solve for the roots of Z^5 = -1, we can use the fact that any complex number can be written in polar form as Z = r(cosθ + isinθ). We can then raise both sides of the equation to the power of 1/5, giving us five possible solutions for Z. From there, we can use trigonometric identities to determine the values of r and θ for each solution.

## 2. Can this equation be solved using only real numbers?

Yes, this equation can be solved using only real numbers. The solutions will be complex numbers, but they can be written in terms of real numbers by using the polar form of complex numbers.

## 3. How many solutions does this equation have?

This equation has five solutions, as indicated by the exponent of 5 in the equation. This is because when we raise a complex number to the power of 5, the result will have five distinct solutions in the complex plane.

## 4. Is there a specific method for solving equations with complex numbers?

Yes, there are several methods for solving equations with complex numbers. One common method is to use the polar form of complex numbers, as mentioned in the first question. Another method is to use algebraic manipulation and the quadratic formula to solve for the roots.

## 5. Can this equation be solved without using complex numbers?

No, this equation cannot be solved without using complex numbers. The solutions will always involve complex numbers, even if they can be written in terms of real numbers using the polar form.

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