# Speed of sound in turbulent air?

• zimbabwe
In summary, sound is subject to shear and is affected by wind direction and speed. If I turn on a standing fan in my room, the speed of sound will change in different directions depending on the location.
zimbabwe
If I turn on a standing fan in my room how does the speed of sound change in the fast moving air compared to the still air around it? Would it be relatively faster, slower, or does it depend on the direction in which the fan is blowing?

Sound is subject to shear. "It may be seen that refraction effects occur only because there is a wind gradient and it is not due to the result of sound being convected[sic] along by the wind." (Singal, S. (2005). Noise Pollution and Control Strategy. Alpha Science International, Ltd. p. 7. ISBN 1-84265-237-0.)

zimbabwe said:
If I turn on a standing fan in my room how does the speed of sound change in the fast moving air compared to the still air around it? Would it be relatively faster, slower, or does it depend on the direction in which the fan is blowing?

Under conditions of equilibrium, it can be shown that the speed of sound in still air is some function of mean axial molecular velocity along the sound axis connecting the emitter with the sensor. This function is complex and non-linear. When the fan is blowing, conditions of equilibrium do not exist, and the function becomes even more complex.

In general, sound will travel faster in the wind direction and slower in all other directions. Since the relationship is non-linear, a ten mps wind speed will not add 10 mps to the speed of sound in the windward direction. Moreover, the drop in the speed of sound in all other directions will be a function of the angle between the wind speed axis and the sound speed axis.

In addition, there will be changes in the intensity of the sound with wind direction.

klimatos said:
In general, sound will travel faster in the wind direction and slower in all other directions.

Could I used turbulent air to deflect a sound wave then? As in my image.

zimbabwe said:
If I turn on a standing fan in my room how does the speed of sound change in the fast moving air compared to the still air around it? Would it be relatively faster, slower, or does it depend on the direction in which the fan is blowing?
It will depend on the direction in which you are measuring the speed of sound. Have you not ever experienced having a wind gust reduce or even briefly eliminate the sound from a source? A fan is likely to be a bit limited in its capability to do that but I think it would be measurable with sensitive enough instruments. On the other hand, you ask about the "still air around it". If the air is indeed still, why do you think, turbulence elsewhere would matter to the speed of sound in still air.

My thinking started with wind gusts. I was more thinking if one is bed and the neighbor is noisy could a fan be used to deflect the sound waves around one' s head.

phinds said:
If the air is indeed still, why do you think, turbulence elsewhere would matter to the speed of sound in still air.

I didn't mean the turbulent air would change the speed of sound in the still air, I meant relative to the still air. I don't expect to get a value for the speed of sound in still air and the speed of sound in air moving at 3m/s, in the direction of the sound wave, but this would be interesting.

I was thinking along these lines,

but for sound waves.

If your goal is simply to get to sleep in the presence of extraneous noise, then there are numerous small devices that replicate soothing sounds (surf, raindrops, meadow noises, etc.) that might help. I have found the simple motor noise of a fan to be useful. Your diagram shows a rather simplistic view of sound waves. This view rapidly deteriorates with increases in distance, time, and scale. If you have a fan in any reasonably-sized bedroom, then you don't have any still air in that room.

As one who has dealt with the free atmosphere for more years than I care to remember, I would even go so far as to say that still air does not exist except under rigid laboratory conditions. What we call still air is simply air whose net movement is less than some arbitrary limit. And it doesn't take sophisticated scientific instruments to detect this movement. A simple strand of gossamer will do the trick.

## 1. What causes turbulence in air and how does it affect the speed of sound?

Turbulence in air is caused by the irregular motion of air particles due to changes in temperature, pressure, and wind. This turbulence can affect the speed of sound by creating variations in air density, which in turn affects the speed at which sound waves travel. As turbulence increases, the speed of sound also increases due to the compression of air molecules.

## 2. How does the speed of sound in turbulent air differ from that in calm air?

In general, the speed of sound in turbulent air is higher than in calm air due to the increased density caused by turbulence. However, the exact difference in speed can vary depending on the intensity of the turbulence and other environmental factors.

## 3. Can the speed of sound in turbulent air be measured accurately?

Yes, the speed of sound in turbulent air can be measured accurately using various instruments such as ultrasonic anemometers, hot-wire anemometers, and acoustic thermometers. These instruments can detect changes in air density and temperature, allowing for an accurate calculation of the speed of sound in turbulent air.

## 4. How does the speed of sound in turbulent air affect aircraft performance?

The speed of sound in turbulent air can significantly impact aircraft performance. As the speed of sound increases, the aircraft may experience increased drag and decreased lift, making it more difficult to maneuver. This can also result in increased fuel consumption and slower travel times.

## 5. Can the speed of sound in turbulent air be predicted?

Yes, the speed of sound in turbulent air can be predicted using mathematical models and computer simulations. These predictions take into account various environmental factors such as temperature, pressure, and wind to accurately estimate the speed of sound in turbulent air. However, due to the unpredictable nature of turbulence, these predictions may not always be completely accurate.

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