I need help understanding how frequencies are distributed when taking the FFT of an Image and how can i determine those frequencies, I really need a detailed and easy tutorial with practical example to understand it. When we take the FFT of a Sine/Cos wave we can easily see its frequencies in FFT, here is my example i added comments in detail to understand, Code (Text): %Matlab Code, f=1e3; %Frequency of Wave -> 1KHz A=4; %Amplitude Fs = 1e6; %Sampling Frequency Ts = 1/Fs; %Sampling Rate t = 10/f; %Time period of 10 Oscillation n = 0:Ts:t; %Generating Samples % (1/f)/T = 1000 %Length for 1 Oscillation after Sampling % So Length of the Signal for 10 Oscillations is 10,000 x=A*sin(2*pi*f*n); subplot(2,1 ,1); plot(n,x); % 100,000/10,000 = 100Hz <- First point = 100Hz % 2nd Point = 200Hz % 3rd Point = 300Hz % 4th Point = 400Hz % . % . % 10th Point = 1KHz <- Original Signal Frequency subplot(2,1 ,2); F=fft(x); plot(2*abs(F)./(t/Ts)); xlim ([0 100]) % 0 = 100 , 1 = 200......10=1000......100 = 10,000 set(gca, 'XTickLabel', ((get(gca,'XTick')))*100) xlabel ('Frequency in Hz') and here is the output image, See how easily I can see the frequency of actual signal in Frequency domain, this is because i knew that the original frequency was 1KHz. but in case of Images, what are the frequencies ? here is the simple code, Code (Text): image = [0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1] The above discrete signal has 8 points so N = 8 How can i determine the frequencies and amplitude of this signal ? just like i did above for Sine wave If i take its FFT and display it , Code (Text): f = fft2(image) imshow(fftshift(f)); % plotting it is nothing but 3-colors the middle one is white. (as expected) I've no idea what does that output mean , how could i understand what are the frequencies in the image from this output ? Can somebody explain me just one example of image FFT and how to determine the frequency etc like i did above in case of Sine wave?