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Joshua Sejin Yoon
As distance between two capacitor plates decreases, capacitance increases - given that the dielectric and area of the capacitor plates remain the same.
So, why does this occur?
So, why does this occur?
Joshua Sejin Yoon said:As distance between two capacitor plates decreases, capacitance increases - given that the dielectric and area of the capacitor plates remain the same.
So, why does this occur?
Capacitance is the amount of charge imbalance (Q) for a given Potential difference. When the plates are closer together, the same PD, applied across the plates will bring opposite charges on the two plates closer together. They will attract each other more (reduced spacing) and so even more charges will be attracted to the faces (it takes only a minuscule field to make the charges in the metal move towards the face. So, by the way Capacitance is defined (more charge, same PD) , the Capacitance is increased.Joshua Sejin Yoon said:So, why does this occur?
Does that mean that capacitance is:stevendaryl said:That is briefly discussed here: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/pplate.html#c2
The Capacitance is a description of the Quality of an object. It depends on the dimensions and materials used and not the conditions it is exposed to. A mathematical formula is only a formula. It does however, tell you how to Calculate the Capacitance, if you measure the Charge and PD.Joshua Sejin Yoon said:Does that mean that capacitance is:
- inversely proportional to Electric field strength (E) NO
- inversely proportional to Distance (d) YES
- proportional to Charge (Q) NO
- proportional to Area (A) YES
And because distance affects capacitance and distance is proportional to the Electric field strength, is capacitance affected by the Electric field strength?
If I, for example, have paper as the dielectric, and the distance between the two capacitor plates were decreased (so there are less "molecules" of paper), why and how does this increase capacitance? Shouldn't the plates hold more charge if there are more polarised molecules in the dielectric, as the pull on the nucleus will be greater (due to all of the electrons), and thus the atom's electrons will be pulled towards the nucleus with greater force, allowing more charges on the capacitor plates?sophiecentaur said:f you put a dielectric between the plates, the molecules in faces of the the dielectric are much nearer to each plate and the molecules inside the dielectric will polarise easily. So, again, the actual charge imbalance on the plates will be greater for a given PD. Another way I look upon a dielectric is that it's a bit like putting a conductor in between that's just a tiny bit narrower than the original gap. That is producing a capacitor with a much smaller gap and, hence, a greater Capacitance. The only problem is that such a narrow gap between metal plates could flash across with only a tiny PD. A dielectric will only allow Polarisation and not a flow of charge so no 'short circuit'.
The best explanation for this is that there is no shortage of polarisable molecules in the dielectric and, of course, the applied Electric field (Volts per metre) would be Increased with a narrower gap.Joshua Sejin Yoon said:how does this increase capacitance?
Joshua Sejin Yoon said:Does that mean that capacitance is:
- inversely proportional to Electric field strength (E)
- inversely proportional to Distance (d)
- proportional to Charge (Q)
- proportional to Area (A)
And because distance affects capacitance and distance is proportional to the Electric field strength, is capacitance affected by the Electric field strength?
stevendaryl said:So putting it all together,
[itex]C = \frac{Q}{V} = \frac{Q}{E d} = \frac{Q}{\frac{\sigma}{\epsilon} d} = \frac{Q}{\frac{Q}{A} \frac{d}{\epsilon}} = \frac{\epsilon A}{d}[/itex]
where [itex]A[/itex] is the area of one plate, and [itex]d[/itex] is the distance between the plates. So the charge drops out, and the only quantities that [itex]C[/itex] depends on are the area of the plates, the distance between them, and the dielectric constant.
I am having trouble understanding why the voltage increases as the force of attraction is overcome.Dadface said:This results in an increase in V
The plates are attracted to each other. You exert a force against this and, moving away, you do Work. Like when you stretch a spring. SO the Energy per unit charge increases - that's Potential Difference.Joshua Sejin Yoon said:I am having trouble understanding why the voltage increases as the force of attraction is overcome.
Could you please elaborate as to why this occurs?
Could this relate to when capacitor plates are charged at a certain distance (x), then discharged, and charged at another distance (y), then discharged, and the capacitance at those two points differing? If so, how?sophiecentaur said:The plates are attracted to each other. You exert a force against this and, moving away, you do Work. Like when you stretch a spring. SO the Energy per unit charge increases - that's Potential Difference.
The Capacitance depends just on the geometry and the dielectric - not on the charge. to get the same charge on the plates with different separation you need different voltages.BUT putting the same PD across the plates at different distances will change the Charge.Joshua Sejin Yoon said:Could this relate to when capacitor plates are charged at a certain distance (x), then discharged, and charged at another distance (y), then discharged, and the capacitance at those two points differing? If so, how?
Just to clarify one more thing: Does the distance between the two capacitor plates, therefore (assuming PD is same), affects the charge on each plate?sophiecentaur said:The Capacitance depends just on the geometry and the dielectric - not on the charge. to get the same charge on the plates with different separation you need different voltages.BUT putting the same PD across the plates at different distances will change the Charge.
That's what follows from Q=CV.
Q=CV is the way to put it. C is the Capacitance. The "charge on each plate" will be equal and opposite if the whole thing started off at Earth Potential.Joshua Sejin Yoon said:Just to clarify one more thing: Does the distance between the two capacitor plates, therefore (assuming PD is same), affects the charge on each plate?
Does this mean that electric fields affect capacitance, and distance affects electric fields (assuming voltage is the same)?sophiecentaur said:applied Electric field (Volts per metre) would be Increased with a narrower gap
Electric fields do not affect capacitance. This has been explained already. A particular capacitor has the same capacitance whether it is fully charged, half charged or fully discharged. Capacitance is the ratio of charge to potential difference for that capacitor.Joshua Sejin Yoon said:Does this mean that electric fields affect capacitance, and distance affects electric fields (assuming voltage is the same)?
That Capacitance is between the object and distant space or, for convenience, the nearby Earth. It's 'unbalanced' cpmpared with the two plates of a Capacitor which charge symmetrically.Dadface said:The capacitance of an isolated lump of conductor
NO. We've been here before. I suggest you re -ead some of the above posts and also read around the subject elsewhere. Google can help you a lot.Joshua Sejin Yoon said:Does this mean that electric fields affect capacitance,
Distance affects capacitance because capacitance is a measure of the ability of a capacitor to store charge. The closer the two conducting plates of a capacitor are, the stronger the electric field between them and the more charge they can hold. When the distance between the plates increases, the electric field weakens, resulting in a decrease in capacitance.
Distance affects capacitance by altering the strength of the electric field between the two conducting plates of a capacitor. As the distance between the plates increases, the electric field weakens, leading to a decrease in capacitance. This is because the electric field is responsible for attracting and holding charge on the plates, and a weaker field means less charge can be held.
No, distance cannot increase capacitance. As mentioned earlier, capacitance is a measure of the ability of a capacitor to store charge, and this ability is directly related to the distance between the plates. As the distance increases, the capacitance decreases, and vice versa.
No, distance is not the only factor affecting capacitance. Other factors such as the size and shape of the conducting plates, the dielectric material between the plates, and the voltage across the capacitor also play a role in determining the capacitance value.
The effect of distance on capacitance can be minimized by decreasing the distance between the two conducting plates. This can be done by using thinner plates, increasing the overlap area of the plates, or using a material with a higher dielectric constant between the plates. However, the effect of distance cannot be completely eliminated as it is a fundamental factor in determining the capacitance of a capacitor.