A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field. It is a passive electronic component with two terminals.
The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit. The capacitor was originally known as a condenser or condensator. This name and its cognates are still widely used in many languages, but rarely in English, one notable exception being condenser microphones, also called capacitor microphones.
The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many types of capacitor are in common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may be a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte. The nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's charge capacity. Materials commonly used as dielectrics include glass, ceramic, plastic film, paper, mica, air, and oxide layers. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy, although real-life capacitors do dissipate a small amount (see Non-ideal behavior). When an electric potential (a voltage) is applied across the terminals of a capacitor, for example when a capacitor is connected across a battery, an electric field develops across the dielectric, causing a net positive charge to collect on one plate and net negative charge to collect on the other plate. No current actually flows through the dielectric. However, there is a flow of charge through the source circuit. If the condition is maintained sufficiently long, the current through the source circuit ceases. If a time-varying voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, the source experiences an ongoing current due to the charging and discharging cycles of the capacitor.
The earliest forms of capacitors were created in the 1740s, when European experimenters discovered that electric charge could be stored in water-filled glass jars that came to be known as Leyden jars. Today, capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies. In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric power transmission systems, they stabilize voltage and power flow. The property of energy storage in capacitors was exploited as dynamic memory in early digital computers, and still is in modern DRAM.
Parallel plates A, B are 5mm apart, with charges +1C and -1C respectively. Parallel plates C, D are 2mm apart, with charges +1C and -1C respectively. Capacitor CD is slid between capacitor AB. Find the potential difference between AB.
The key idea to solving this problem is to suppose that +1C...
I thought up of this problem myself, so I do not have solutions. I would appreciate if you could correct my approach to solving this problem.
Firstly, the charge induced on the inner surface of shell B is -q, and so the charge on the outer surface of shell B is Q+q.
The energy stored can be...
The key observation to solve the above problem is that the charge Q can be dragged out into a flat capacitor plate parallel to the 2 existing plates. Apparently, while the charge distribution on the 2 existing plates changes, the total charge induced on each plate remains the same, due to the...
I have 2 methods, which give 2 different solutions:
Let sigma = charge per unit area
Let plate 1 be the left plate, plate 2 = right plate.
Because they are insulating, consider the electric field at 3 regions; region 1 to the left of plate 1, region 2 between the plates, and region 3...
I first calculated the charge each capacitor has after its directly charged by the 36 V battery.
##Q_1 = C_1 * V = (2 \mu F) * 36 V = 72 \mu C##
##Q_2 = C_2 * V = (5 \mu F) * 36 V = 180 \mu C##
##Q_3 = C_3 * V = (7 \mu F) * 36 V = 252 \mu C##
Then these capacitors connect in series, so I...
Well i don't you to solve the question for me but I want you to clarify the concepts pertaining to this question. My question is how do I write a equation for the circuit since the there is same charge on one of the capacitors. While writing the equation should i put the voltage across the...
In my opinion, the voltage across the C1 should be 9V as the potential on the side of the positive plate of the capacitor should be (15-6)V and on the other be 0V.
Similarly the potential across C2 should be (7-0)V.
Here I'm basically assuming that the voltage at the negative terminals of the...
I tried to attempt it by applying KVL to both the loops.
I tried to find a possible charge distribution for the capacitors. I guess this is right.
On solving I get:
from what I know potential difference between M and N is Q1/C2
but the solution is given as:
Where am I wrong?
I have another exam question that I am not so sure about. I've solved similar problems in textbooks but I have a feeling once again that the correct way to solve this problem is much simpler and eluding me.
Especially because my answer to a) is already the solution to c) and d) (I did...
Summary: I need to build an asymmetric capacitor, but the mathematics of electromagnetics become too tough, do you have any info that can help? Appreciate it!
I am an undergraduate student in engineering and I want to build an asymmetric capacitor, so I need electromagnetics which I...
I already did part a and got the correct answer of 4.8 microC. However, I am unsure how to approach part b, where the switch is closed and apparently the two capacitors end up with different charges. For part b, since there is a path between the two capacitors, I don't know if I am able to...
V = IR
The Attempt at a Solution
I don't understand how the capacitor C_2 is in parallel with R, which would dictate that they have the same p.d, but then again the circuit is in stead state and so no current...
I am reading about the capacitors. I have read that the capacitors block DC and behaves as open circuit in DC while short circuit in AC. The reason behind this is the charging and discharging of the capacitor. What is my perception about it, I will mention about it.
During the DC...
Tau = RC
The Attempt at a Solution
Normally, I would use the eq'n mentioned above to find Vr in an RC circuit. However, this second capacitor is throwing me off. Is there a new equation I should use? How do I think about this...
The Attempt at a Solution
So you need to find the voltage across node D while the capacitor is charging, so it is going to be related to the voltage of the capacitor, so a function of time, so you need to come up with the equation for Vc(t), which I...
So I'm interested in adding a bank of capacitors to help reduce the initial load on my batteries when accelerating from a stop but my current set up uses regenerative braking. My electrinics are this order, Motors, VESC, BMS, 10s5p Li-ion pack. If I add capacitors between the bms and vesc to...
So I need to find the equivalent resistance for the following RC circuit to calculate the time constant, but I got stuck in terms of finding out the equivalent resistance.
V = IR
The Attempt at a Solution
So the thing I am not sure on is how do you...
Working through Purcell (among others) as fun applied math/math modeling refresher. But, I have struggled all week in establishing from first principles that the potential/field/distribution for a configuration of two capacitive disks of radius 1 and separation s along the...
A negative charge of mass m enters into the field between two deflecting parallel plates with length 'l' separated by distance 'd' with a velocity 'v'.Assuming electric field to be uniform,find the maximum charge so that it will not hit a plate
Why is the electric potential of an electron in a capacitor measured from the negative plate and not the positive plate here?
This is from Liboff Introductory quantum mechanics 1st(current is 4th) edition:
I don't understand why the distance z is measured from the bottom plate if the...
If you put a capacitor in some circuit, why exactly do the conductors that form the capacitor have equal and opposite charge? This seems to be assumed in many cases.
Is it possible for the conductors to have different magnitude of charge?
I have two isolated plates A and B, kept parallel to each other. Now I give charge +Q to the plate A, it will redistribute itself as +Q/2 on the outer plate A and + Q/2 on the inner plate A. Right?
Now this will induce charge -Q/2 on the inner plate B and +Q/2 charge on the outer plate B...
A circuit contains a capacitor of capacitance C, a power supply of emf E, two resistors of resistances R1 and R2 , and a switch S2 . Resistor R1 is in series with the power supply and R2 is in parallel with the capacitor and the power supply. S2 switches the branch that...
I have a decent understanding of power factor caps, (far from perfect) but I’m not as clear on surge caps.
Surge caps store transient voltages and discharge back into the system?
Why are they tied to ground?
And do they also provide capacitance in the motor circuit they are tied to providing...
A couple of months ago I was troubleshooting a blown fuse on a power factor correction capacitor in a 4160v motor starter. While I was working through it I noticed that my DMM (fluke 289) would charge the capacitor to a certain degree while on the Ω function. The current from the meter would...
[mod note: thread moved from homework forum]
I have this Mouser voltage regulator
Wired according to datasheet https://www.mouser.com/ds/2/389/l79-974159.pdf see insert photo...
what is the consensus on using super capacitors to power a 500w electric bike motor.
cheap and innovative alternative to li-po batteries or explosion between thighs waiting to happen?
the plan is to create something like this:
i will use a 24V motor...
Hi everyone. I am doing some research about Cockcroft Walton Accelerators, because I need to be able to explain them to others as a part of a project. However, in order to understand the Cockcroft Walton Accelerator, I need to be able to understand the Cockcroft Walton Generator first. I have...
Consider a parallel plate capacitor formed by two plates of length ##L## and width ##d##, separated by a distance ##e##. There is a vacuum in between the plates. Let's note the capacitance of this arrangement ##C_0##.
I insert a conducting plate of length ##l=L/2##, with ##D##, and thickness...
This is what I have and I was wondering where C2 might go if I make apply the hybrid pi model on this circuit. I know that all the DC Voltages should be shorted if I were to make use of an equivalent circuit, so that in the hybrid pi model R1 should be in the input and R3 in the output. But what...
I'm just really lost on this topic and honestly don't have too much of an idea.
(a) Using Kirchoff's loop rule, find the differential equation satisfied by the charge q(t).
(b) Verify that q(t) = q_max e^-(a/t) cos(ωt) satisfies the differential equation for particular...
I'm trying to understand the difference between these two when it comes to measuring the amount of time they take.
As of right now, my current understanding is that pole relaxation is based on the amount of time that it takes for polarization of the charges to go back to its relaxed state.
I have recently come across a datasheet for a buck converter regulator that uses the terms "c code" and "No." for certain capacitors but when going to the manufacturer datasheets for these capacitors they make no reference to any "c code" or one single number for a capacitor. If anyone could...
If a capacitor is charged to 10V where the negative side is connected to ground (0V), when the capacitor is disconnected from the power supply on both the positive and negative sides;
1) Will the negative side of the capacitor still be 0V relative to the ground it was just connected to?
This is a question from an a level textbook.
The R starts at 8k ohms (thought its not relevant)
Switch S is closed - C fully charges up.
Question:Switch S is opened. Explain why the current decreases and REVERSES direction in the ammeter.
This is what I think. The decrease in current is...
The text in the paper says that C1 has Vout/N-1 = Vout/6, C2 has 2*Vout/6 and so on...
Can someone please explain how?
Source : Liao, Zitao, Yutian Lei, and Robert CN Pilawa-Podgurski. "A GaN-based flying-capacitor multilevel boost converter for high step-up conversion." Energy Conversion...
C = Q/V
The Attempt at a Solution
I understand that capacitors in parallel have the same voltage, but wouldn't they be in series after the switch is flipped, since no current goes to the left most portion of the circuit.
2 large plates are separated by a distance d and a space charge of uniform charge density p is placed between them and a potential difference V is applied accross the plates. Find the electric field stength at a distance x fromt the positive plate
The answer is -V/d...
This is a general question, not a homework question, and @berkeman said I should post it in the EE forum...
I'm trying to get a better understanding of the relationship of dielectric constant (relative permitivity) to dielectric strength (breakdown voltage).I want to know what happens when you...
Hello everyone. The problem is related to these two capacitor connections:
In the enunciate it is said that these two are equivalent and it is requested to prove that:
I have spent hours on the web and in libraries to obtain a general and careful approach to the notion of capacitance, without success. Please, read carefully the question: I already know the usual blabla about capacitance. Also, I appologize in advance for the length of this question.
A potential difference Vab = 46.0 V is applied across the capacitor network of the following figure.
If C1=C2=4.00μF and C4=8.00μF, what must the capacitance C3 be if the network is to store 2.80×10−3 J of electrical energy?
(1/C) = (1/c1) +...
1. Passage of current via coil creates magnetic field (fig a), similarly external magnetic field linked to coil when changed created electric current in the circuit connected ( Faraday's em induction fig b).
2. Charging of capacitor using voltage source creates electric field in the capacitor...
Hi guys! I am fairly new to the forums so thank you for having me here :)
I just wanted to ask some of you guys here who have a better knowledge about high voltage capacitors than me.
I am creating a lightning impulse voltage generator as my final year project and have been provided with most...
What will happen to the force between the capacitor plates (Will increase or decrease or remain constant) if we introduce a dielectric between them?
As per the answer given the physics textbook , the force will remain same? But as per my understanding the force should decrease since electrical...