What is Biochemistry: Definition and 99 Discussions

Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided into three fields: structural biology, enzymology and metabolism. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become successful at explaining living processes through these three disciplines. Almost all areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed through biochemical methodology and research. Biochemistry focuses on understanding the chemical basis which allows biological molecules to give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells, in turn relating greatly to the understanding of tissues and organs, as well as organism structure and function. Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, which is the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena.Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions, and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. They provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life. The chemistry of the cell also depends upon the reactions of small molecules and ions. These can be inorganic (for example, water and metal ions) or organic (for example, the amino acids, which are used to synthesize proteins). The mechanisms used by cells to harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism. The findings of biochemistry are applied primarily in medicine, nutrition and agriculture. In medicine, biochemists investigate the causes and cures of diseases. Nutrition studies how to maintain health and wellness and also the effects of nutritional deficiencies. In agriculture, biochemists investigate soil and fertilizers. Improving crop cultivation, crop storage, and pest control are also goals.

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  1. taimcampos92

    State function question as it applies to Biology/Physiology

    Hi everyone! Hope you all are doing great. I'm currently starting a new course mixed with Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Physics-related to Nurse anesthesia. While reading about State function a question arrived on my team. We all agreed that a State Function "is a property or characteristic of a...
  2. L

    Admissions DOE SULI Advice For Biology Background - Renewable Energy Development

    Hi Everyone! I am an upperclassmen undergrad of a biol background, with mainly course training in biochemistry and molecular biol, and taken chem like o-chem and a-chem, and introductory physics. I have three short term summer projects at top 5 institutions in the past and in the field of...
  3. P

    Biology What Happens When Ran GTPase Binds Tightly to GEF?

    Hi everyone! There is a question that I can't solve. Ran GTPase controls nuclear import of proteins and is present at a much higher concentration than its GAP (GTPase activating protein) and GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) proteins. Imagine a mutation in the Ran GTPase resulting in an...
  4. I

    Unwanted biochemistry that would benefit us?

    Is there any examples of a biochemical process (and of course, the compounds associated with it) that a body‘s genetics would code for destruction of, but if it were to run in the body unnoticed, it would actually improve the body? Hope this question is clear enough, and that I am not missing...
  5. P

    Medical Biochemistry (Nucleotide Polymerization)

    Hi everyone! I did some multiple choice tasks and got stuck on two statements: "In RNA, the sugar is present in the 2'-endo conformation". This statement is false, but why? What conformation does the sugar molecule have? How do I recognize the conformation? "When two nucleotides polymerize...
  6. samy4408

    Medical Question about the synthesis of fatty acids

    Hello , in the course of fatty acids synthesis the professor said that after the repetition of the cycle 7 times we end up with a 16 carbon chain and he added that all the carbons came from acetyl-COA except for one . i didn't understand the last one , what is the carbon that don't come from...
  7. samy4408

    A question about nucleic acids

    Hello , is minor bases and Nucleoside the same thing ?
  8. samy4408

    Medical Hello, I found a weird sentence in a book about enzymes....

    Hello ! We all now that enzymes lower the activation energy by creating both covalent bonds and week non covalent bonds , in this book , about how the enzyme lower the activation energy using covalent bonds they said : this sentence is not compatible with a basic principle that i learned in...
  9. samy4408

    Something that doesn't make sense to me about calculating the pH

    Hello , the problem that i refer to is present when we try to calculate the pH of a solution without any assumption. in a lecture entitled "calculating the pH of a strong acid/base solution " after adding a certain amount of HCl in water we are asked to calculate the pH (the amount of HCl and...
  10. samy4408

    Lipid Formation: Fatty Acids, Glycerol, and Sphingosine

    Hello , I am studying lipids and a point got me confused . it is said that beside the fatty acid we have glycerol and sphingosine that forms the backbone of the lipid . is the lipid formed by those 3 components at the same time (fatty acid +glycerol +sphingosine ) or it is formed by the fatty...
  11. samy4408

    Medical Question about reactions in biochemistry

    we assume that we have an exergonic reaction , a substrate going to a product , is the negative ΔG′° the principal reason that the equilibrium favors the product (there is more product than substrate at equilibrium )?, or it is not and that depends on other factors? , thanks .
  12. Biochemgirl2002

    Calculating Log(MW) & MW with LINEST

    I have found my LINEST equation for my standard curve, which is where y=log(MW) AND x= Rf y=-1.392047709x+2.324113743 as well, my imageLab gives me: Relative Front (Rf) = 0.087 error on Rf=0.005 I can calculate my log(MW) by inputing my Rf into x value of the equation...
  13. EFech

    How Do Configurational and Conformational Entropy Differ in Protein Folding?

    I have been reading about protein thermodynamics and found different types and models for entropy calculation before and after protein folding. I understand Vibrational, conformational, configurational entropy are some of the most studied "types" of protein folding entropy. My questions is...
  14. Sophrosyne

    Medical Tensile strength of cell membranes

    The structure of the cell membrane is depicted as being formed from a bilayer of phospholipids with their hydrophilic portions pointing outwards and their hydrophilic portions facing each other. But as I look at the histology of the epithelial layer of the epidermis or mucous membranes, I am...
  15. JOJOwwwAiri

    Biology Biochemistry Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis

    The answer is that reactions in parts b and e would be blocked but I don't understand why the answer is that and what's the logic involved in getting the correct answer. Could somebody explain the general approach in understanding and solving this type of question to me? Thanks in advance!
  16. S

    Question about antibody affinity chromatography

    I am learning about protein purification in my Biochemistry class, and I have a question about protein elution in antibody affinity chromatography. My understanding of the mechanism for the technique is that proteins that do not bind to the antibody will be separated first as it runs down the...
  17. docnet

    How do I reconcile the biochemistry textbook descriptions of protons?

    One of the main lessons from general and organic chemistry was excess protons in aqueous solutions exist in the form of hydronium ions. However, in biochemistry textbooks, protons are individual in descriptions, for example, of the pumps in the electron transport chain, photosynthetic complexes...
  18. C

    Anti-viral Activity of Anise Extract

    Anise extracts contain Lignin-Carbohydrate complexes (LCs), which have been found to have anti-viral effects according to this article (DOI: 10.1271/bbb.100645 ). However, from what I understood by going quickly through the article, the scientists applied the extract directly onto the cell...
  19. M

    Chemistry What is the ratio of pH=Pka-1?

    I think it is 1:10 but I am not sure the meaning of PKa -1, can someone explain it please.
  20. TytoAlba95

    Preparation of 1mg/ml BSA

    I had to prepare 1mg/ml BSA for Total protein estimation by Lowry method. I was suggested to add 1ml distilled water to 1mg of BSA in a 2 ml ependoff tube, instead of adding distilled water upto the 1ml mark. The explanation that was given to me was, that, 1mg is a very small amount and it...
  21. Sophrosyne

    The chemistry/physics of saltatory nerve conduction

    Saltatory nerve conduction occurs because of myelination of nerve fibers. This is done by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. From what I understand, it happens because depolarization of the membrane at an unmyelinated area of the...
  22. M

    How Does pH Affect Peptide Separation in Electrophoresis?

    Hi all, I have a question about this exercise: Which is the best option of pH for electrophoresis separation of two peptides with isoelectric points of 10.3 and 7 respectively? The given options of pH are 3,8 or 10. I've thought that if pH is more than 7, then, there will be positive charge...
  23. Mahavir

    Chemistry A good introductory biochemistry book for medical school

    Hello everyone, I've been trying to find an introductory textbook that really introduces biochemistry with a very basic approach. As part of my first year medical courses, I will need to take a few weeks of biochemistry and the textbook that has been recommended is Lodish et al. Molecular Cell...
  24. Grant

    What to do on Spring Break in Southern California?

    Hi everyone, My name is Grant and I am here on my spring break. I can't decide if I like or dislike science, but I am a biochem major with an enthusiasm for learning. I don't plan on being here for long, but I look forward to meeting you all. Come to me if you have any questions about what...
  25. Ethan Singer

    Biochemistry Research: Is it Worth the Cost and Effort?

    So I picked up this book (Lehninger) for being too expensive, because obviously the more pricey the book is, the better it's quality in learning... stuff... and content... it probably cures cancer, who knows? Anyhow, so I am reading through the book and I come across a passage I don't fully...
  26. J

    Microbiological Fuel Cell: Negative Voltage

    Hello! I've been working on a few soil based MFCs and I have been monitoring my voltage and energy output for a week now. I've made the electrodes by covering stainless steel metal meshes with activated carbon using epoxy. I've gotten some funky results as attached. As you can see... the...
  27. Asmaa Mohammad

    Why Does the Fischer Projection of Glucose Show Carbon Atoms with Five Bonds?

    Hello, my book shows this figure of Fischer formula of D-glucose I don't understand this figure, and I wonder why the upper carbon atoms in both the right and left formulas have 5 bonds. And from where comes this hedrogen atom in the upper left side of the figure (attached to alpha...
  28. H

    Volumes of a Buffer using Henderson-Hasselbalch?

    Homework Statement Calculate the volume of 0.10M phosphate solution to mix to prepare 100mL of a buffer with pH 6.0 starting with 0.10M stock solutions of NaH2PO4 and Na2HPO4. The pKa for this reaction is 7.21. Homework Equations pH=pHa+log( [A-]/[HA]) The Attempt at a Solution When I did it...
  29. E

    How Might an Alien Species Use Codeine in Their Biochemistry?

    OK, in my story with a human colony ship headed to a new planet, I'm thinking of making the life on that planet originate from a comet carrying life with a shared ancestry to Earth life. Which means that they'll be a bit less alien than they otherwise could have been. They will share a lot of...
  30. T

    MCQ: Enzyme Kinetics - Find the Zeroth Order Answer

    Homework Statement An enzyme catalysed reaction becomes zeroth order when: a.The velocity of enzyme action very low b. The velocity of enzyme action very high c.Enzyme conc very high d. All of these The attempt at a solution I understand An enzyme mediation recation becomes Zeroth order if [...
  31. T

    Medical Biochemical reason behind (neurotic) perfectionism

    Is the reason behind neurotic perfectionism known? I'm looking for the molecular basis of this kind of perfectionism but couldn't find much on Google - Web and Scholar.
  32. Jimster41

    What causes oak trees to develop galls and how do they benefit the gall wasp?

    How does the Gall Wasp get an Oak tree to make these? http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/galls-oak https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gall_wasp I am not able to find anything other than "induced by chemicals secreted by the wasp" more or less. I have been looking at these over the last six...
  33. A

    2 Biochemistry MC Questions - Protein Structure, Enzymes

    1. A substrate molecule may be bound to the active site of an enzyme by all of the following EXCEPT A. Hydrogen Bonds B. Peptide Bonds C. Ionic Bonds D. Van der Waals Interactions E. Hydrophobic Interactions 2. Which of the following components is the most important in determining the 3-D...
  34. Bayoudh101

    Why Is Understanding Biochemistry Foundations Crucial for Medical Students?

    Hello . 1) - i am having some problems with biochemistry (first month of first semester of first year of medical school) . the course contains a large number of spontaneous chemical reactions especially on -OH , -COOH , -COH ... groups on glucides , Amino acides and so on ... when i ask the...
  35. M

    Engineering Biomedical Engineering vs. Bioinformatics

    Which of these fields would allow one to make a bigger impact on treatment of mental illnesses? What about neurological disorders? And if you could also explain why that would be great, Thanks!
  36. B

    Transition from B-DNA to Z-DNA: Finding L, T, and W

    Homework Statement Suppose that a turn of B-DNA in a circular DNA molecule with L = 100 and W = -4 becomes a turn of Z-DNA . a) What are the L, T, and W following the transition? Homework Equations L=T+W L=#bp/#bp/turn B-dna= 10.4bp/turn Z-dna=12bp/turn The Attempt at a Solution...
  37. J

    A What is the best Quantum Model to solve many body problems?

    I know to describe Quantum Mechanical systems we can use: -Schrodinger equation -Feynman Path Integral method -Heisenberg Matrix formulation Well my question is, if you want to calculate molecular properties, and want to understand biochemistry (protein), you have a system with several...
  38. E

    Advice for Entering Biochem MSc./PhD after Phys. BSc.?

    I have a BSc. Honours Physics degree and I have summer research experience in Biophysics and Computational Chemistry. I want to enter a grad school program where I may use the basic physics that I've acquired throughout my undergrad degree, but where the focus is around biological function. The...
  39. Vannay

    Ideal advisor wary of my lack of knowledge in biochem....

    I'm in a physics graduate program shopping around for research advisors and I met with my number one pick today. He works with biological systems using calorimetry and other lab methods a biologist would know. He saw my enthusiasm and liked it but was wary about my lack of biochem knowledge. He...
  40. N

    Biochemistry Undergrad to Bioengineering PHD

    Hey! So I graduated with a BS in Biochemistry and I was originally considering medical school but after studying the horrible mcat for 3 years, I decided I had enough of that. Furthermore, I really lost interest in any aspect of patient work. However what has always interested me since I was a...
  41. T

    What is a mechanism in chemistry and how do I draw it?

    Sorry i am doing this summer research program and I have only taken Chem honors and we did not learn how to dram a mechanism or what a mechanism even is!
  42. N

    Programs Should You Pursue a Minor Alongside a Double Major in STEM?

    Hi everyone, I have a question about the intricacies of Majors and Minors. Not sure if the topic/prefix is correct, any mod that thinks it should be under something else please go ahead and change it. But my question is regarding the specifics and impacts of majors and minors. I plan on...
  43. L

    Help with questions on becoming a surgeon?

    Im almost 16 and in 10th grade and I am very interested in biology/human anatomy. But when i was in 9th grade i was homeschooled and it wasnt for me and i ended up procrastinating to the point were i was kicked out in the middle of the second semester (but you need to finish the whole semester...
  44. W

    Biochemistry of Relaxing effect of Chamomile?

    Hi, just curious: I have been using chamomile pretty successfully as a relaxant and sleep aid, by using compresses, so that the chamomile goes directly into the bloodstream. But, what kind of biochemistry underlies a relaxing effect, i.e., what kind of biochemical effect can a substance have to...
  45. TheNerdConstant

    15 year old physics nerd bids everyone hello

    Hi I have been passionate about physics for the last 4 years self taught up to about the first year of university level. I have found this website because now, at this key point in my life i need the guidance and knowledge that people from scientific fields only posses. I am interested to meet...
  46. ClaireBear1596

    Should I do Biochemistry or Physics

    I have a choice between studying physics and biomedical science(where I would specialize in biochemistry) and I cannot decide which I should do. I've always had a passion for physics but upon actually studying I've found it very difficult. It's still interesting to me but I'm not sure if this is...
  47. J

    Biochemistry: Tryptophan fluorescence

    1. A 100-residue globular protein contains two Trp residues, and has two segments with the same 9-amino acid sequence, SSSLWLAAA. One segment is residues 1-9, and one segment is residues 44-53. What would the complete fluorescence spectrum of the protein MOST LIKELY contain? a) It would contain...
  48. B

    Biochemistry, Organic Chemistry, and General Biology

    Hello! I am a rising sophomore with double major in a microbiology and a chemistry. I wrote this thread because I need a guidance in the course selection for the upcoming Fall Semester. Is taking both organic chemistry and biochemistry a good idea? I know that the biochemistry is based on...