What is Genetic code: Definition and 12 Discussions

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences of nucleotide triplets, or codons) into proteins. Translation is accomplished by the ribosome, which links proteinogenic amino acids in an order specified by messenger RNA (mRNA), using transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to carry amino acids and to read the mRNA three nucleotides at a time. The genetic code is highly similar among all organisms and can be expressed in a simple table with 64 entries.

The codons specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis. With some exceptions, a three-nucleotide codon in a nucleic acid sequence specifies a single amino acid. The vast majority of genes are encoded with a single scheme (see the RNA codon table). That scheme is often referred to as the canonical or standard genetic code, or simply the genetic code, though variant codes (such as in mitochondria) exist.
While the "genetic code" is what determines a protein's amino acid sequence, other genomic regions determine when and where these proteins are produced according to various "gene regulatory codes".

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  1. K

    Genetic code other than DNA (moved)

    Summary: Curious to find out genetic code other than DNA <mentor> Moved to Discussion, hypothetical discussion Dear PF Forum, It's been a long time since I log into PF. And I hope everybody is in a good health. Recently I had a discussion debate with my friend about other life in this...
  2. Suppaman

    Our understanding of the laws of the genetic code?

    I just did my morning exercise while listening to a short youtube talk on genetics. I do not understand it but what struck me was it seemed to be on the level of an EE discussing OHM's law, Transistor theory, and digital logic terms. Now I know all the rules that make my PC on which I am...
  3. Navin

    Origin Story Of The First Proteins

    Now i had a question,but before that look at this. Now by the central dogma DNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase onto mRNA and this leads to translation which creates Protiens. But hold on...The polymerase itself is an enzyme ie ;a protein . So to make proteins...you need proteins aldredy...
  4. Ygggdrasil

    Semi-synthetic organism with an expanded genetic code

    All life on Earth stores its genetic information in DNA using just four nucleotide letters: A, T, C, and G. Research published this week in the journal Nature describes how scientists engineered a bacterium to incorporate two new letters into their DNA (which they call X and Y, pictured below)...
  5. T

    What does "Genetic Code" mean?

    According to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21950/ and some other sources: 'Genetic code is the set of correspondences between nucleotide pair triplets in DNA and amino acids in protein.' What dose correspondences mean in this regard? I don't understand why nucleotide pair triplets and...
  6. V

    Genetic Code: Val-tRNA Val - Anticodon Selection

    Homework Statement Val-tRNA val is the tRNA that carries valine to the ribosome during translation. Which of the following sequences gives an appropriate anticodon for this tRNA? A. CAU B. AUC C. UAC D. GUG Homework Equations There are four different codons for Valine: GUU, GUC, GUA, and...
  7. BasicComplex

    Redundancy of the genetic code enables translational pausing

    Thoughts on this? http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fgene.2014.00140/full The codon redundancy (“degeneracy”) found in protein-coding regions of mRNA also prescribes Translational Pausing (TP). When coupled with the appropriate interpreters, multiple meanings and functions are...
  8. T

    Animal's genetic code redesigned

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-14492948" Just want to discuss this development. IMO, we are not prepared for this kind of revolution, unless we fully understand the implications and effect of engineering the genetic code without exactly knowing the outcome. I know this is...
  9. Monique

    Science - Genetic Code Sees Double

    Interesting, never trust a dogma. Genetic Code Supports Targeted Insertion of Two Amino Acids by One Codon "Call it the genetic version of a double-entendre. Scientific dogma dictates that various three-letter combinations of our genetic sequence each "mean" exactly one thing--each codes...
  10. J

    Biology: how the wobble effect explains the degeneracy of the genetic code

    Hello, Here's a conceptual question: The wobble effect says that 1 tRNA can be used for more than 1 anticodon, as the nucleotide near the 5' position of the anticodon does not need to follow strict base pairing rules. The degeneracy of the genetic code refers to the fact that more than...
  11. J

    Understanding the Genetic Code: What is Universality and Redundancy?

    I'm having problems with three terms that are used to describe the genetic code: universality redundancy non-overlapping reading frame 1) Universality: For the most part, I understand. I know that the universality of the code allows for the limited exchange of genetic information among...
  12. N

    Codons aren't basic units of the genetic code right?

    codons aren't basic units of the genetic code right? my friend told me that it does but i remember in lecture that proff said it doesn't but maybe i misheard